ALGERIA

Date of establishment: March 19, 1962

Brief history:

  • The country has a rich history that dates back to before the Christian era.
  • Its ancient history dates back to the times of ancient Greece and Rome. In the 7th century, an Arab empire was established, which in the course of the 16th century became part of the Ottoman Empire.
  • In the 19th century, the French began to gradually occupy the territory of today’s Algeria, and in 1830 it became a French colony. This was followed by the violent suppression of rebellion and the widespread use of the indigenous population as slaves.
  • In 1962, Algeria gained independence after an eight-year war fought by the Algerians against the French. The new government focused on building a socialist state and developing the country.
  • In the 1990s, however, Algeria faced a wave of violence and terrorism as Islamic extremist groups sought to overthrow the government. The conflict claimed more than 100 000 lives.
  • In 1999, Abdelaziz Bouteflika became president of Algeria and led the country until 2019. His government was criticized for corruption and its insufficient response to social and economic problems.
  • In 2019, there were widespread protests against the government and Bouteflika, leading to his resignation. Algeria is currently governed by a transitional government.
  • Overall, Algeria has had a varied history of facing many challenges and conflicts, but it still remains an important country for Africa and the world.

 

International abbreviation: DZ

 

Currency: Algerian dinar (DZD)

Each dinar is divided into 100 centimes. The Algerian dinar was introduced in 1964 to replace the French franc, which was used during the French colonial era. Since then, several versions of the dinar have been issued, including banknotes for 100, 200, 500, 1 000, 2 000, and 5 000 dinars and coins for 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 dinars.

 

Internet domain: .dz

 

Dialing code: +213

 

Time zone: GMT +1

 

Geography:

Algeria is the largest country in Africa and is located in the northwest of the continent. It borders Morocco to the west, Mauritania, Mali and Niger to the south, Libya to the east and Tunisia to the northeast. In the north, the country has a Mediterranean coast, which is approximately 1 200 km (746 miles) long.

The country is mainly mountainous, with several mountain ranges, including the Atlas Mountains, which stretch in an eastern direction. To the south lies the Sahara, the largest desert in the world.

 

Highest peak: Tahat 3 003 m (9 852 feet) above sea level.

Tahat is located in the Ahaggar Mountains in the southern part of Algeria, near the town of Tamanrasset. The Ahaggar Mountains are an area of numerous rock formations, gorges, and canyons that stretch across the Saharan landscape. Due to the remote location and the desert character of the area, it is necessary to have suitable equipment and experience in mountain terrain to climb Tahat.

 

Climate:

Algeria has diverse climatic conditions, from a dry and hot climate in the desert regions to a humid and mild climate in the north of the country. Most precipitation falls between October and May. The government is trying to combat drought and water scarcity in the country through water management projects and the development of irrigation systems.

 

Fauna and flora:

The Saharan lion is a subspecies of lion that inhabits the desert regions of southern Algeria. The dorcas gazelle is common in the desert regions of Algeria and is well adapted to the extreme conditions of the desert. The Arabian oryx, which was thought to be extinct in the wild, has been successfully reintroduced to desert areas. The two-toed ostrich inhabits desert areas and steppes in southern Algeria. There are various species of snakes and lizards, including carpet snakes and monitor lizards. Acacia raddiana is typical of dry desert areas and steppes in Algeria.

Euphorbias are succulent plants that are well adapted to the dry and hot conditions of the desert. Olive trees are common on the Mediterranean coast.

 

Agriculture:

Algeria produces a variety of crops, including cereals, vegetables, fruit, and olives. Cereals such as wheat and barley are staples in the Algerian diet.

It is one of the world’s largest producers of olive oil. Olive trees are grown mainly on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea.

Dates are an important crop in the desert regions and are exported from there all over the world. Wine and grape must production is also a significant part of the agricultural industry.

Cattle and sheep farming is widespread in the countryside. Meat and milk from these animals are an important part of the Algerian diet.

Various crops and vegetables such as tomatoes, potatoes, citrus fruits, and others are grown for domestic consumption as well as for export.

 

Extraction of raw materials:

Algeria has abundant natural resources, including minerals. Among the most important are oil, lithium, gold, diamonds, natural gas, phosphates, iron ore, and copper.

Oil and gas extraction are Algeria’s most important industries and represent the country’s main source of foreign trade income. The country is one of Africa’s largest oil producers and ranks among the ten largest producers of natural gas in the world. The country is also a member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).

Phosphates are mined in the West Coast region and iron ore in the Atlas Mountains and around the city of Tébessa.

 

Industry:

Algeria has a developed chemicals industry that produces fertilizers, petrochemicals, plastics and other chemicals.

Infrastructure development and construction has become an important industry in Algeria in recent years. The country invests in the construction of roads, railways, ports, airports, and other infrastructure projects.

It has a growing automotive industry. Several international car companies have built factories to assemble and manufacture cars. The production of foodstuffs such as flour, sugar, oils, dairy products, and beverages plays an important role in the Algerian economy.

The textiles and clothing industry produces clothes, textiles, and footwear for the domestic market and for export.

 

Services and other areas of the economy: tourism and transport

 

Natural and historical attractions: Batna, Algiers, Djemila, Ghardaia, Hoggar, the Mzab valley, the Sahara desert and oases, and Tassili N´Ajjer National Park.

Algeria has many natural and cultural treasures that attract tourists from all over the world.

The top tourist attractions in Algeria include the Atlas Mountains, the Sahara Desert, Tassili n’Ajjer National Park, archeological sites including the city of Timgad, the city of Constantine, and many more. It offers beautiful beaches and opportunities for water sports near the Mediterranean Sea.

 

Waterparks in Algeria:

 

Form of government: semi-presidential republic

The president is the head of state and also the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The president is elected by citizens by direct election for a five-year term. Algeria has a multi-tiered electoral system and parliament has powers in areas such as legislation and government control.

The government of Algeria consists of a prime minister and ministers who are appointed by the president. Algeria also has a developed system of regional government, consisting of 48 departments (wilaya) and urban districts (baladia). Each department is headed by a governor appointed by the president. City districts are managed by mayors.

The independent judicial system consists of civil and criminal courts and a supreme court.

 

Capital city: Algiers

It is located in the northern part of the country on the Mediterranean coast. With more than three million inhabitants, Algiers is the largest city in the country and the center of political, economic, and cultural life.

The city of Algiers has a long history that dates back to the 10th century. During the Middle Ages, Algiers was an important trading center and port for merchants from all over the Mediterranean. Over the years, the city has been ruled by many different powers, including the Romans, the Byzantine Empire, the Arabs, the Ottomans, and the French.

 

Area: 2 381 740 km2 (919 595 square miles)

 

Population: 44 700 000 (2022)

Most of the population lives in the coastal regions, mainly in the capital Algiers and other large cities such as Oran and Constantine.

The people of Algeria are predominantly Arabs, who make up about 80% of the population. Berbers also live there, making up about 15% of the population. In addition to these two main ethnic groups, Algeria also has smaller communities of European descent, mainly French and Spanish, as well as smaller numbers of immigrants from other African and Arab countries.

The majority of Algerians follow Islam, which is the country’s official religion. The rest of the population is divided between smaller communities of Christians and Jews.

Arabic is the main official language in Algeria and is used in administration, education, and public institutions. Berber is also an official language in Algeria and gained this status in 2016 after unrest.

 

UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 7

 

  1. Casbah in Algiers (1982) – Ancient part of the city of Algiers with many historical buildings and monuments.
  2. Tassili n’Ajjer (1982) – An area of mountainous rock formations and desert landscape that is an important site with significant rock paintings and drawings.
  3. Timgad (1982) – A Roman town founded in 100 CE with preserved ruins of many public buildings and houses.
  4. M’Zab (1982) – A network of ancient fortified cities in the central Sahara desert with unique architecture and urban planning.
  5. Tipasa (1982) – Ancient Roman city and port on the Mediterranean coast with remains of temples, theaters, and other buildings.
  6. Tichoumrit n’Ath Yenni (1982) – A dolmen burial site that is an important example of the Neolithic legacy in the region.
  7. Djémila (1982) – A Roman city with many preserved buildings and monuments, including temples, theaters, and triumphal arches.

 

National parks: 9

 

  1. Tassili n’Ajjer National Park
  2. Belezma National Park
  3. Tlemcen National Park
  4. Chréa National Park
  5. Djurdjura National Park
  6. El Kala National Park
  7. Gouraya National Park
  8. Theniet El Had National Park
  9. Ahaggar National Park