COMOROS (UNION OF THE COMOROS)

Date of establishment: July 6, 1975

Brief history:

  • Colonization: Comoros was colonized by France during the 19th century. A French protectorate was established over the islands in 1841.
  • Independence: On July 6, 1975, the Comoros gained independence from France and became a sovereign state. Ahmed Abdallah became the first president.
  • Political Instability: After gaining independence, they faced political instability and inter-island conflicts. This led to several changes in the constitution and polity.
  • Separatist Tendencies: In 1997, the island of Anjouan declared independence, prompting intervention by neighboring African countries and France. After the agreements, the federation was restored, but with greater powers for the individual islands.
  • Current status: the Comoros remain a federation of three main islands: Grande Comore, Mohéli, and Anjouan.
  • Middle East Policy: Comoros maintains diplomatic relations with various countries, including Arab and African states, and plays a role in Indian Ocean regional politics.

 

International abbreviation: KM

 

Currency: Comorian franc (KMF)

One Comorian franc is divided into 100 centimes, although these are no longer used. This currency is used on all three main Comoros islands: Grande Comore, Mohéli, and Anjouan.

The Comorian franc is the only valid currency in the country and is used for all common transactions, including shopping, trade, and banking operations.

 

Internet domain: .km

 

Dialing code: +269

 

Time zone: +3 GMT

 

Geography:

Comoros is an island nation located in the Indian Ocean, near the east coast of the African continent. It consists of a total of 26 islands, of which only 14 are inhabited.

The islands have a diverse landscape that includes volcanoes, mountain ranges, beaches, and coral reefs.

On the island of Grande Comore there is the active volcano Karthala, which is one of the largest active volcanoes in the world.

The islands are surrounded by beautiful coral reefs that are home to abundant marine life.

 

Highest peak: Mount Karthala 2 361 m (7 746 feet) above sea level.

It is the highest peak on the island of Grande Comore, which is the largest island.

Karthala is an active volcano and reaches an altitude of 2,361 meters (7 746 feet) above sea level. This volcano is an important geological feature on the island and has an effect on the landscape and ecosystems of Grande Comore.

 

Climate:

Comoros has two distinct rainy seasons. The main rainy season lasts from November to April and is associated with the so-called monsoon winds. A large amount of rainfall can fall during this period, especially on larger islands such as Grande Comore. The second, smaller rainy season occurs from June to September.

Temperatures in the Comoros are high all year round. Average daily temperatures are around 30-32°C (86-90°F) during the day and around 22-24°C (72-75°F) at night. Humidity can reach up to 80-90%. The country is located in an area where hurricanes or cyclones can form at certain times. These storms can bring strong winds, intense rainfall, and flooding.

 

Fauna and flora:

Comoros is home to many endemic species of plants and animals, meaning they are only found on these islands. Among them is, for example, the Comorian lemur, which is the country’s only primate. The islands are an important habitat for birds. For example, the Comoros olive pigeon and raven belong to the local endemic birds.

They offer a rich underwater environment with coral reefs that are home to various species of fish, sea turtles, dolphins, and sharks.

Various species of reptiles are found in the Comoros, including geckos and snakes. One of the largest geckos in the world, the Komba gecko lives only there.

The country has a unique flora with many endemic plants. These include, for example, the Comoros baobab, exotic orchids, and others.

The islands have tropical forests that provide shelter for many species of animals and are important for maintaining biodiversity.

 

Agriculture:

The main crops grown in the Comoros are cassava, sweet potatoes, taro, rice, and maize. Cassava is a particularly important crop and forms an essential part of the local diet. These root crops are easy to grow and have a long shelf life.

Comoros is one of the world’s main producers of vanilla. Other important crops are cloves and ylang-ylang, which are used in the pharmaceuticals and cosmetics industries.

Fishing also plays an important role in the local economy. People on the coast catch different types of fish and seafood. Agriculture faces various challenges, including insufficient infrastructure to enable efficient processing and distribution of crops. Soil erosion, lack of water during the dry season, and also reliance on traditional farming methods.

 

Extraction of raw materials:

The islands are not known for their mining of raw materials, due to their geological composition. There are no deposits of mineral resources such as precious metals, oil or coal that can be mined on an industrial scale. The most important sectors of the economy are agriculture and fishing.

 

Industry:

Industry on the islands is relatively small and limited. Food production and processing of agricultural products such as cassava, rice, cloves, and vanilla play a significant role in the industrial sector.

Due to the presence of tropical forests, there is a wood processing industry in some places. Wood is mainly used to produce furniture and building materials.

The textiles industry is rather small, but there are local workshops that produce textile products, including clothing and home textiles.

Due to the cultivation of plants such as ylang-ylang and cloves, the islands produce essential oils and cosmetic products that are exported abroad.

 

Services and other areas of the economy: tourism

 

Natural and historical attractions: Mount Karthala volcanoes, the towns of Mitsamiouli and Moroni, Mount Ntringui and Moheli Marine Park, and beaches

Tourism in Comoros is not as developed as in some other tropical destinations. The islands offer beautiful nature, beaches, coral reefs, and abundant marine life, attracting tourists looking for exotic destinations. They are known for their beautiful beaches with white sand and clear sea. Tropical forests, waterfalls, and volcanoes such as Karthala on Grande Comore are attractive destinations for nature and adventure lovers.

The coral reefs around Comoros are ideal for divers and snorkeling. The opportunity to observe various species of fish, turtles, dolphins, and corals attracts lovers of the underwater world to this area.

 

Waterparks in Comoros:

 

Form of government: federal presidential republic

The president of the Union of the Comoros is the head of state as well as the chief executive officer. He is elected by general election for a five-year term. The government consists of a president, vice president, and ministers, who are responsible for various aspects of the federal administration.

The Union of the Comoros was established in 2001 and consists of the three main islands: Grande Comore, Mohéli, and Anjouan, as well as several smaller islets. Each of these islands has a degree of autonomy and its own government that runs things at the local level. The capital of the Union of the Comoros and the center of the federal government is Moroni on the island of Grande Comore.

Each of the main islands has its own governor and an autonomous government that has powers in areas such as education, health, and regional administration. This federal structure was established to respect the diverse cultures and traditions of the individual islands.

 

Capital city: Moroni

Moroni is located on the west coast of Grande Comore, which is the largest island. The Port of Moroni serves as a gateway for international and local trade. Ships with cargo land here, as well as ferries connecting the individual islands of the Comoros.

The city has a rich history and culture that reflects the mixed ethnic and cultural identity of the Comoros. Local markets, monuments and festivals are an important part of local life.

 

Area: 1 862 km2 (719 square miles)

 

Population: 870 000 (2022)

The population of the Union of the Comoros is diverse and consists of several ethnic groups. They are descendants of African, Arab, and Malay immigrants, most of whom are Sunni Muslims. The Antals are descendants of the original population of the islands. They have their own cultural and linguistic traditions.

The official languages used in public accommodation and educational institutions are Arabic and French. Islam is the main religion and has a significant influence on the culture and daily life of the inhabitants. In addition, there are also smaller religious communities, including Christianity and traditional African religions.

The population is predominantly rural. Most people live in the countryside and depend on agriculture and fishing. The country faces several social and economic challenges, including inadequate infrastructure and access to basic services, which affects the quality of life of the population.

 

UNESCO World Heritage Sites: –

 

National parks: 5

 

  1. Coelacanth National Park
  2. Mount Karthala National Park
  3. Mohéli National Park
  4. Mount Ntringui National Park
  5. Shisiwani National Park