CONGO

Date of establishment: August 15, 1960

Brief history:

  • Pre-Colonial Period: The Congo Basin was home to many indigenous tribes, including the Kingdom of Congo.
  • Colonization: In the 19th century, European explorers began to penetrate the Congo region.
  • In 1885, the Congolese territory was divided between Belgium and France. The Belgian part was known as the Congo State.
  • Independence of the Democratic Republic of the Congo: On 30 June 1960, the independence of what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo was declared under the leadership of Patrice Lumumba.
  • Republic of the Congo: In 1960, the Republic of the Congo gained independence from France under the leadership of Fulbert Youlou.
  • The country has gone through political changes and conflicts, including civil war.
  • 21st century: The Republic of the Congo continues to face political and economic challenges, including the fight against corruption.
  • Present time: Efforts to solve the challenges it faces and strive for stabilization and development.

 

International abbreviation: CG

 

Currency: Central African CFA franc

The Central African CFA franc is the national currency. The Republic of Congo is a member of the French Monetary Union and shares a currency with other countries in the region.

 

Internet domain: .cg

 

Dialing code: +241

 

Time zone: +1 GMT

 

Geography:

The Congolese region is geographically vast and diverse. The country is located mainly on the western side of the Congo River, opposite the DR Congo. The landscape includes rainforests, coastal plains, mountain ranges and rivers.

 

Highest peak: Mont Nabemba 1 020 m (3 346 feet) above sea level.

Mont Nabemba is a mountain in the Mayumbe Mountains in Central Africa. It is located in the Republic of the Congo in the territory of the department of Sangha in the district of Souanké. It is the highest mountain in the Republic of the Congo. There are iron ore deposits around the mountain.

 

Climate:

The Republic of the Congo has a hot and humid climate throughout the year. Temperatures are mostly high and range from 24°C (75°F) to 31°C (88°F), with minimal seasonal variation. The hottest months are usually from January to March. Air humidity is high throughout the year, which creates favorable conditions for tropical plant growth and lush vegetation.

The Republic of the Congo has two distinct rainy seasons and two dry seasons. One rainy season lasts from April to October, when most of the precipitation falls. The drier season comes from November to March, when the amount of rainfall decreases.

 

Fauna and flora:

You will find many species of large mammals in the Republic of the Congo, including elephants, gorillas, chimpanzees, leopards, rhinos, antelopes, giraffes, and buffaloes. It is home to several species of primate, including mountain and lowland gorillas, mangabeys, and more.

There are many bird species in the country, including parrots, raptors, and hummingbirds. Crocodiles live on bodies of water, and snakes are found in forests and swamps. The rivers and lakes are rich in fish, which is important for the local fishing industry and food.

The largest part of the country is covered with rainforest, which is home to many species of rare plants and trees. Many valuable timber species are found here, including mahogany, ebony, and others, leading to problems related to illegal logging.

The country is known for its rich collection of orchids that grow in the rainforest and are considered exotic flowers. Local people use the plants for medicinal purposes and traditional medicine.

 

Agriculture:

Agriculture in the Congo focuses on growing a variety of crops, including cassava, bananas, sweet potatoes, rice, corn, groundnuts, and more. Cassava is one of the main crops and forms an essential part of the local diet. Congo is also a minor producer of coffee and cocoa, which are important export crops. Livestock breeding is widespread, including cattle, goats, and sheep.

 

Extraction of raw materials:

The Republic of the Congo is a major producer of oil and natural gas. Oil extraction and its export are key sources of income for the state budget.

Wood and wood products play an important role, as forests cover a large part of the country.

The country is also famous for diamond mining. Diamonds are mainly mined in the eastern Congo region. In the past, this trade has faced challenges related to conflict and illegal mining (so-called blood diamonds). Manganese mining is mainly concentrated around the city of Pointe-Noire, which is an important port for the export of mining products.

A small amount of gold is mined, mainly in the areas in the east of the country. Various types of stone are also mined in the Congo, including limestone, granite, and other building materials.

 

Industry:

The industry associated with the extraction and processing of oil and natural gas is one of the most important sectors in the Congolese economy.

Construction and the construction industry are growing in connection with the development of infrastructure, including roads, bridges, and other construction projects. There are also several cement factories that produce building materials.

 

Services and other areas of the economy: shipping

 

Natural and historical attractions: Gorges de Diosso, Nouabalé-Ndoki and Odzala national parks, and Brazzaville city.

Congo offers visitors beautiful nature, including rainforests, rivers, lakes, and mountainous regions. One of the attractions is the Crystal Mountains.

The country has several national parks and reserves that serve to protect its rich ecosystem. These include, for example, the Odzala-Kokoua National Park, which is known for its biodiversity and opportunities for observe animals, including gorillas.

It has a rich cultural heritage that includes traditional dances, music, and handicrafts. Some cities, such as Brazzaville, also offer cultural events and festivals.

 

Waterparks in Congo:

 

Form of government: presidential republic

The head of state and government is the president, who is elected by general election and may be re-elected for another term. The Congolese government has executive power and directs state policy and administration.

Legislative power is vested in a bicameral parliament. Parliament consists of the National Assembly (lower house) and the Senate (upper house). Members of the National Assembly are elected by universal suffrage, while senators are elected by regional bodies. The judiciary is independent and includes a court system that decides on a variety of matters including civil, criminal, and constitutional cases.

 

Capital city: Brazzaville

Brazzaville is located in the southwest of the Republic of the Congo, near the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The city lies on the banks of the Congo River, which serves as a natural border between the two countries. The city has a rich history that dates back to the colonial era, when it was part of French Equatorial Africa. It was named after the French explorer Pierre Savorgnan de Brazzo, who played a key role in the founding of the city.

 

Area: 342 000 km2 (132 000 square miles)

 

Population: 5 550 000 (2022)

There are several ethnic groups in the Republic of the Congo, which include the Bantu, Mbochi, Kongo, Teke, Sangha, Mbeti, Mbosi, and others. Each of these groups has its own culture, language, and traditions. The main religious groups are Christianity (Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox branches) and traditional African religions.

French is the official language and is used in government institutions and in education. Lingala and Kituba are also widespread languages used in communication. There are many other ethnic languages and dialects in the country. The country faces public health challenges, including inadequate access to health care, inadequate sanitation, and problems with infectious diseases such as malaria and HIV/AIDS. The government is working with international organizations to address these health issues.

 

UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 2

 

  1. Sangha Trinational (2012) – Three national parks on the triple border of the Central African Republic, Cameroon and Congo with a combined area of more than 750,000 ha.
  2. Odzala-Kokoua Forest Massif (2023) – A national park with ecosystems of dry forest, savannah and rainforest.

 

National parks: 1

 

1. Ntokou-Pikounda National Park