Date of establishment: June 27, 1977

Brief history:

  • Antiquity to 19th century: Djibouti was an important port on the trade route between Africa and Asia.
  • 1862: France gained control of the port of Djibouti.
  • 1896: French Somalia was created, and Djibouti became part of it.
  • 1946: French Somalia became an overseas territory of France.
  • 1977: Djibouti became an independent state after the breakup of French Somalia.
  • 1991: The country began to face internal conflicts.
  • 1998: Tensions with Ethiopia erupted into armed conflict.
  • 2000: A peace agreement was signed between Djibouti and Ethiopia.
  • Present: Djibouti has become a strategic port and an important center of trade and transport in the region.


International abbreviation: DJI


Currency: Djibouti franc (DJF)

In Djibouti, there are denominations of 500, 1 000, 2 000, 5 000 ,and 10 000 francs. In addition, coins in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 500 francs are also available.

However, US dollars and euros are also often used in the country as alternative currencies to pay for goods and services.


Internet domain: .dj


Dialing code: +253


Time zone: +3 GMT



Djibouti is a small country located in northeastern Africa on the coast of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. It is one of the smallest countries in Africa. Djibouti borders Eritrea to the north, Ethiopia to the west, and Somalia.

Most of Djibouti’s territory is a mountainous desert that rises towards the south. Due to its strategic location on the Gulf of Aden, Djibouti is an important port and transport hub between Africa, Asia, and Europe.


Highest peak: Mousa Alli 2 028 m (6 654 feet) above sea level.

It is located in the southwestern part of the country.

Mount Mousa Ali is a volcano that has not shown any activity in recent decades. At the top of the volcano is a crater about 800 meters (2 625 feet) in diameter and up to 200 meters (656 feet) deep, which was created during the last eruption about 4 000 years ago. At the foot of the mountain there are thermal springs and salt flats.

The mountain is a holy place for the locals and is often associated with various legends and stories. From the top of the mountain there is a beautiful view of the surrounding countryside, including the adjacent mountains and the coast of the Red Sea.



Djibouti has a dry and hot climate, which is typical of areas in the Sahel and in the areas around the Red Sea. The average annual temperature is around 30°C (86°F), but during the summer months temperatures can rise above 40°C (104°F). In winter, they are around 25°C (77°F) during the day and 15°C (59°F) at night.

The country has very little rainfall, averaging around 150 mm (6 inches) per year, making it one of the driest countries in the world. Most of the precipitation falls during the short rainy season between May and September.

In addition to the dry climate, it also has high solar activity, which causes a strong evaporative capacity and a higher concentration of salt in the soil and water. This combination of factors means that most of Djibouti’s land is infertile and agricultural production is limited. Water resources are also very scarce and most of the population relies on irrigation using saltwater from the sea.


Fauna and flora:

The Kudu is one of the large antelopes that live in Djibouti’s deserts and savannahs. In addition, rare gazelle species live there, such as the Dorcas gazelle. Hyenas, including jackals, are other mammals that inhabit the area. The Egyptian wolf (Canis aureus lupaster) is an endemic subspecies found in Djibouti. Crocodiles are found in some rivers.

Acacia trees are common in desert areas. They provide shade and food for many animals. There are mangroves and scrub on the coast. Baobab trees are other important trees in the region. They are known for their drought tolerance and create cavities that provide shelter for birds and small animals.

Salt-tolerant plants are typical on salt marshes and coasts.



In some areas of Djibouti where irrigation resources are available, crops such as beans, chickpeas, coffee, banana, tobacco, maize, rice, sorghum, sugar cane, and fruits such as figs, pomegranates, and dates are grown.

Cattle, sheep, goats, and camels are raised here for local consumption.

Agriculture in the country is very limited and food production is insufficient for the total needs of the population. The country relies on food imports and foreign aid.


Extraction of raw materials:

Djibouti is a poor country with limited raw material resources. However, in recent years, some resources have been discovered that can be used for the development of the country in the future.

There are salt reserves, especially in the Assal area. Other potential sources of raw materials in the country mainly include minerals such as copper, gold, and lithium. These were found in the mountainous regions of Mount Goda and Hanle-Goma.

In addition, there is geothermal energy that could be used for the production of electricity.



The main industries in Djibouti are food processing, cement production, and construction materials. The country is also home to some smaller industrial enterprises that focus on the production of soap, cosmetics, and textile products.

The country is an important transportation hub that connects Africa to Asia and Europe and is also home to many logistics and transport companies.

It is mainly investing in the construction of modern ports and transport infrastructure to improve its position as a logistics and trade center.


Services and other areas of the economy: maritime transport and logistics services


Natural and historical attractions: Lac Assal, Grand Barra, Les Allols, and Decan Wildlife Refuge

One of the main tourist attractions is the coast of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, where there are beautiful beaches, coral reefs, and opportunities for diving and snorkeling. Djibouti is also home to several protected areas such as Day Forest, Foret du Day and Lac Abbe national parks, where tourists can encounter different species of animals and birds and admire the beautiful landscape.

The country has a rich history and culture, which includes traditional architecture, handicrafts, and local cuisine. Local markets and bazaars are also popular destinations for tourists looking for authentic experiences and shopping. In recent years, the country has been trying to improve infrastructure for tourists, including the construction of new hotels and other tourist facilities.


Waterparks in Djibouti:


Form of government: semi-presidential republic

The president is the head of state and at the same time the head of government. He has executive power and is elected for a five-year term.

Legislative power is vested in the national assembly, which has 65 members elected for five-year terms.

The judiciary consists of two instances – the Constitutional Council and the Supreme Court.

The country is divided into five regions, which are further divided into 11 districts, and these are further divided into sub-districts and villages. Each region has a governor who is appointed by the president.

There are several political parties but in reality the presidential system has very strong power and political parties do not have a significant influence on political decision-making.


Capital city: Djibouti

It is located near the Red Sea. The city has an estimated population of approximately 600 000, representing the majority of the country’s population.

Djibouti is the major commercial and industrial center of the state and is home to most government institutions, including the presidential palace, parliament, and ministries. The city also serves as an important transportation hub for Middle Eastern countries and is home to the largest port in the region.

The city has several major tourist attractions such as the old fort, mosque, and cathedral. It offers many options for shopping, including traditional markets and shops with local handicrafts.


Area: 23 000 km2 (8 880 square miles)


Population: 960 000 (2022)

The main ethnic groups are the Afar and the Somalis, who represent the majority of the population. In addition, minorities of Ethiopians, Yemenis and Europeans live there.

The official language is French, but many people also speak Arabic and Somali. The majority of the population are Muslims who follow Sunni Islam.

Most of the population lives in coastal cities, especially in the capital, Djibouti. The inland areas are sparsely populated and the population mainly engages in pastoralism and agriculture.

Poverty and lack of resources cause social and economic problems.


UNESCO World Heritage Sites:


National parks: 7


  1. Day Forest National Park
  2. Foret du Day National Park
  3. Lac Abbé National Park
  4. Moucha Islands National Park
  5. Seven Brothers Islands National Park
  6. Goda Mountains National Park
  7. Arrei Mountains National Park