Date of establishment: February 28, 1922

Brief history:

  • Predynastic period (c. 5500–3100 BCE): the period before the establishment of the first Egyptian state. During this time, different cultures and dynasties alternated.
  • Old Kingdom (ca. 3100–2181 BCE): establishment and stabilization of the Egyptian state, construction of the pyramids, and rule of the pharaohs.
  • The First Transitional Period (c. 2181–2055 BCE): a period of instability and chaos when power fragmented among various dynasties.
  • Middle Kingdom (c. 2055–1650 BCE): A period of restoration and stability when Egyptian culture and art flourished.
  • The second transitional period (ca. 1650–1550 BCE): a period of instability and raids by Hyksos tribes from the north.
  • New Kingdom (ca. 1550–1069 BCE): the time of the greatest expansion of the Egyptian state, including the reign of the famous pharaohs.
  • Third Transitional Period (ca. 1069–653 BCE): a period of weakness and instability when various regional dynasties held power.
  • Late period (ca. 653–332 BCE): Egypt becomes part of the Persian Empire and later the Greek kingdom of the Ptolemies.
  • Hellenistic period (ca. 332–30 BCE): Egyptian culture and art are influenced by Greek culture and philosophy.
  • Roman Period (30 BCE–395 CE): Egypt becomes part of the Roman Empire, and later the Byzantine Empire.
  • Arab Period (641–1250 CE): Egypt is defeated by Arab Muslims, leading to the gradual spread of Islam and Arab culture in the country.
  • Mamluk Period (1250–1517 CE): During this time, Egypt becomes a major commercial and cultural center in the Mediterranean.
  • Ottoman Period (1517–1867 CE): Egypt is conquered by the Ottoman Empire and becomes a province. At this time, cities, infrastructure, and culture are developing.
  • Modern Period: Egypt becomes an independent state and undergoes modernization and industrialization. Throughout the 20th century, there have been political and social changes, including a revolution in 1952 and later a return to democracy in 2011.


International abbreviation: EG


Currency: Egyptian Pound (EGP)

The currency of Egypt is called the Egyptian pound (EGP). One pound is divided into 100 piastres. There are banknotes in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, and 200, and coins in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 25, and 50 piastres, and 1 pound.


Internet domain: .eg


Dialing code: +20


Time zone: GMT +2



Egypt is located in northeastern Africa and partly also in Asia, on the Sinai Peninsula. It borders Libya to the west, Sudan to the south, and Israel and the Gaza Strip to the east.

Egypt is a predominantly desert country containing part of the Sahara. Among the most important cities are Cairo, Alexandria, Giza, Luxor, and Aswan. Egypt is also a popular tourist destination with many historical and cultural monuments such as the Pyramids of Giza, the temples of Luxor and Karnak and many more.


Highest peak: Mount Catherine 2 637 m (8 652 feet) above sea level.

It is located on the Sinai Peninsula in southern Egypt. It is the highest mountain in Egypt, with a peak reaching a height of 2 637 meters (8 652 feet) above sea level. At the top of the mountain is the monastery of Saint Catherine, which was built in the 6th century on the spot where, according to tradition, Saint Catherine of Alexandria appeared. The monastery is one of the oldest Christian monasteries in the world and is today an important place of pilgrimage.

Mount Catherine can be climbed on foot along a special hiking trail. The most popular and easiest route starts at the monastery and follows stone steps, stony paths, and rocky terrain to the top. Climbing the mountain is possible all year round, but the best times are spring and autumn, when the temperature is milder.



Egypt has a predominantly dry and hot climate, with minimal rainfall and high temperatures for most of the year. In the Nile region, which forms a narrow oasis in the desert, the climate is much milder and wetter. The Alexandria area to the north has milder temperatures and can be colder in the winter.

The hottest season in Egypt is summer, which lasts from June to September. Temperatures can reach between 40-50°C (104-122°F). In winter, which lasts from November to February, the temperatures are milder, but still quite high, and it is sunny.

Rainfall in Egypt is very low and mainly occurs during the winter months in the north of the country. Rainfall is almost zero in deserts. The source of water for Egypt is primarily the Nile, which brings water from Central Africa and enables agriculture in the Nile Valley.


Fauna and flora:

Among the local animal species are, for example, the Nile crocodile, jackal, desert fox, hyena, oryx antelope, gerbil, and various types of birds such as eagles, vultures, hawks, falcons, and seagulls. There are many species of fish and corals on the coast of the Red Sea, which make up the rich fauna and flora of the coral reefs.

Typical plants for dry areas are as acacias, tamarisks, oleanders, date palms, doum palms, and eucalyptus. Different types of cacti and succulents also play an important role.

Many species of fish and other animals are found in the Nile River.



Agriculture is concentrated mainly in the fertile areas on the banks of the Nile, which flows through the country from south to north. The Nile is a vital source of water for Egypt, and most of the population and economic activities are located along its banks. Due to low rainfall, irrigation is essential for successful crop cultivation.

The most important crop in Egypt is wheat, which is grown mainly in the Nile Delta and the north of the country. Other important crops are sugar cane, cotton, rice, maize, beans, onions, peppers, and tomatoes. In addition, fruit crops such as citrus, grapes, mangoes, and dates are also grown.

Fishing is also an important activity, especially in the Gulf of Suez region and in the north of the country. Among the most important types of fish are tuna, mackerel, sardines, shrimps, and lobsters.


Extraction of raw materials:

Egypt has relatively limited natural resources and the extraction of raw materials in the country is not very developed. However, there are some areas where raw materials are mined, some of which are important for export.

The most important raw material extracted in Egypt is oil. The country produces oil from its own fields, but dependence on imports has increased in recent years. Egypt also produces natural gas, which is used in both households and industry.

Copper, gold, and silver are mined in the Sinai region, while phosphates are mined on the southern coast. Egypt also quarries marble, limestone, sand, and gravel, which are used for construction and ceramics. The country also has some potential in solar and wind energy. In recent years, Egypt has been trying to increase its production of energy from renewable sources and thus reduce its dependence on fossil fuels.



The food industry is the largest in Egypt. Food products such as bread, sugar, oil, canned food, and beverages are produced. Egypt is also known for its cotton production, which is used to make textile products such as clothing, bedding, and carpets.

The chemicals industry is mainly focused on the production of fertilizers, medicines, and cosmetic products. The construction industry is also important, producing building materials such as bricks, concrete blocks, and tiles. Other industries are cement production, metallurgy, and wood processing. Egypt also has a developed tourism industry that includes accommodation, restaurants, transport, and other tourist services.


Services and other areas of the economy: tourism and telecommunications


Natural and historical attractions:

Tourism is an important sector of the Egyptian economy, and the country is among the most popular tourist destinations in the world. Egypt offers visitors a number of historical, cultural, and natural monuments.

The most important tourist attraction is the Pyramids of Giza, which is one of the oldest and most important monuments of the ancient world. Other notable monuments include the temples of Luxor and Karnak, the Valley of the Kings, the tombs of Saqqara, and many more.

Egypt also offers a number of natural beauties, such as coral reefs in the Red Sea, deserts and oases in the Nitra and Libyan deserts, the mountains of Sinai, and the Nile, which provides a number of options for boat trips.

In addition to historical monuments and beautiful nature, Egypt also offers a number of tourist activities such as water sports, safaris, camel riding, and visiting traditional markets.


Waterparks in Egypt:


Form of government: semi-presidential republic

The president, who is the head of state and government, is elected for a four-year term and can be re-elected only once. The president has broad powers and can make laws, appoint the government, judges, and other officials, as well as declare a state of emergency.

Legislative power in Egypt is vested in a unicameral parliament called the People’s Assembly. The parliament has 596 members who are elected for four-year terms. Parliament has the power to approve laws, assess the national budget and foreign policy, and approve government proposals.

The government is appointed by the president and approved by parliament. The government is responsible for running the country and managing state institutions. The prime minister is the head of the government and appoints the ministers.

The judiciary in Egypt is independent of the government and the president. The Supreme Court has the power to review the constitutionality of laws and resolve disputes between state institutions. Egypt is divided into 27 provinces, which are further divided into smaller administrative units. Each province has a governor who is appointed by the president.


Capital city: Cairo

Cairo is the capital of Egypt and with more than 20 million inhabitants it is the largest city in Africa. It is located in the Nile Valley on the eastern edge of the country.

Cairo is the historical and cultural center of Egypt and has a rich history that dates back to the time of the Pharaohs. The city is home to many monuments such as the Pyramids of Giza, ancient temples, markets, museums, and other historical and cultural monuments. Modern Cairo is a vibrant city that offers many options for shopping, entertainment, and tourist activities. The city has developed industry, trade, and services and is an important economic center.

Among the top tourist attractions in Cairo is the Egyptian Museum, which is home to many archaeological finds and artefacts, including the famous Tutankhamun. Also worth a visit are the Cairo Fort, a relic from the time of Ottoman rule, the markets in the Islamic quarter of the city, where traditional Egyptian products are sold, and the Suq al-Gamaal, the largest market in Cairo.


Area: 1 010 408 km2 (390 121 sq. miles)


Population: 108 000 000 (2022)

Most of the people of Egypt are Arabs, who make up roughly 90% of the population. The rest of the population consists mainly of Berbers, Nubians, and Copts. The Coptic minority has roots in early Christianity and makes up about 10% of the population. The majority of Egyptians follow Islam, which is the country’s official religion.

Egypt has a relatively young population, with an average age of around 25. Most of the population lives in urbanized areas, mainly in the Nile Delta and the Cairo area.


UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 7


  1. Pyramids of Giza: This archaeological complex is home to the largest and most famous pyramids in the world, including the Great Pyramid of Cheops, the Pyramid of Khafre, and the Pyramid of Menkaur.
  2. Karnak Temple in Luxor: This temple is the largest ancient temple in the world and was built between the 16th century and the 11th century BCE. There are many remains of buildings and columns that show how important this temple was for the ancient Egyptians.
  3. Valley of the Kings: This valley on the west bank of the Nile near Luxor is a sacred place where many pharaohs were buried during the New Kingdom. It contains 63 tombs and other inscriptions and depictions that point to the area’s significant role for ancient Egypt.
  4. The ancient city of Thebes: Located on the east bank of the Nile near Luxor, this city was the capital of ancient Egypt. It includes many important monuments such as the Temple of Amun and the Temple of Queen Hatshepsut.
  5. Abu Mena: The city was built in the 5th century CE on the site of the tomb of Saint Mena and was an important Christian pilgrimage site. It includes many remains of churches, monasteries, and other buildings.
  6. The Ancient City of Memphis and its Necropolis – Pyramids of Giza and Saqqara: Memphis was the capital of Ancient Egypt and includes many monuments, including the Columbus Obelisk, which is the largest obelisk in Egypt. The pyramids of Giza and Saqqara are also in this area.
  7. Ancient Port of Alexandria: Built in the 4th century BCE, this port was one of the largest and most important ports in the entire Mediterranean.


National parks: 3


  1. Ras Muhammad National Park
  2. Wadi El Rayan National Park
  3. Gebel Elba National Park