Date of establishment: March 6, 1957

Brief history:

  • Pre-colonial period: Ghana was inhabited by various ethnic groups such as the Ashanti, Fanti, and Dagomba.
  • 1471: Portuguese navigator Diogo de Azambuja discovered the coast of Ghana.
  • 1482: Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão visited the fortress of Elmina and established a Portuguese settlement there.
  • 1591: Moroccan soldiers occupy the Ghanaian Empire and take control of the slave trade there.
  • 1874: The British declared the so-called Gold Coast Colony, which also included the territory of today’s Ghana.
  • 1947: Political organizations were formed to push for the independence of Ghana.
  • 1957: Ghana became the first British colony in Africa to gain independence. Kwame Nkrumah became the first president.
  • 1960: Ghana became a republic.
  • 1966: A military coup was carried out and Nkrumah was overthrown.
  • 1992: Ghana adopted a new constitution and held its first democratic elections.
  • 2000: John Agyekum Kufuor was elected president and adopted a policy of economic growth.


International abbreviation: GH


Currency: Ghanaian cedi (GHS)

The Ghanaian cedi (GHS) has been the official currency of Ghana since 2007. One hundredth of a cedi is called a pesewa. All the banknotes feature one of Ghana’s notable personalities.


Internet domain: .gh


Dialing code: +233


Time zone: 0 GMT



Ghana is a West African country located on the coast of the Gulf of Guinea. It borders Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, and Togo.

The country has a very diverse geography – there are many lowlands, highlands, and mountains. The country is home to many rivers, the largest of which are the Volta, Ankobra and Tano. It also has several lakes, the largest of which is Lake Volta, which was created by the construction of a dam on the Volta in 1965.


Highest peak: Mont Afadja 880 m (2 887 feet) above sea level.

Mount Afadja is the highest mountain in Ghana. It is located in the Togo Mountains, which are on the border between Ghana and Togo.

The mountain is a popular tourist destination for visitors to Ghana and Togo. The summit can be reached by a trail from the village of Liati Wote, which is located at the foot of the mountain.



Ghana has a tropical climate with high humidity and annual rainfall of around 1000-1200 mm (39-47 inches). The country’s climate is divided into four seasons: the dry season from November to February, the minor rainy season in March and April, the heavy rainy season from May to July, and the minor rainy season in August and September.

Temperatures in the country are high throughout the year and usually range between 25-32 °C (77-90°F), with higher temperatures in the north and lower temperatures on the coast. During the dry season, temperatures can be even higher and can reach up to 38°C (100°F). During the rainy season, the country can be affected by flooding and soil erosion, which can have a negative impact on agriculture and infrastructure.


Fauna and flora:

Ghana is home to African elephants, especially in protected areas such as Mole National Park and Bui National Park. Although lion populations have declined in West Africa, efforts are underway to reintroduce them to areas such as Mole National Park. Leopards are found in various parts of the country, including forested areas and savannas. Cheetahs are rare in Ghana but are occasionally seen in protected areas.

African buffalo live in several national parks and reserves. Various species of antelope, such as the waterbuck, hartebeest, and duiker, are common in the savannas and grasslands.

The Volta is home to hippos and crocodiles. The country is a paradise for bird watchers, and more than 700 species live there. Different species of monkeys such as colobus, green, and Diana monkeys. The southern part is covered with lush tropical rainforests. These are home to a variety of plant species, including various hardwoods such as mahogany, boxwood, and cedar.

In the north are savanna grasslands with tree species such as shea, acacia, and baobabs. Mangrove forests are found along the coast and estuaries. These provide key habitats for marine life and protect against erosion.

Ghana has a rich tradition of herbal medicine. For example, nimbu, moringa, and ginger are typical of this area.



Ghana is one of the largest cocoa producers in the world. Cocoa is a major export product and contributes significantly to Ghana’s economy. Cocoa plantations are located mainly in the southern part of the country, where the climatic conditions are suitable for its cultivation.

Palm oil is another important export product. Rice, corn, cassava and yam, are also grown. A wide variety of vegetables and fruits, including tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, pineapples, and bananas, are cultivated. It is known for its spices and herbs such as pepper, garlic, ginger, and sorghum.

Cattle are kept in some parts, especially in the northern areas.


Extraction of raw materials:

Ghana is one of the leading countries in Africa for gold mining. It has a long history and is a significant contributor to the Ghanaian economy. The main mining areas are the Ashanti Region and the Western Region. They also mine diamonds, although their production is lower than that of gold. Diamonds are mainly mined in the Akwatia area of the Eastern Region. Bauxite, a raw material for aluminum production, is mined in the Ashanti and Western Regions.

It is also an oil producer. Production began in 2010 after the discovery of oil on the seabed off the coast of Ghana. This event contributed to growth of the Ghanaian economy and investment in the energy sector.

Wood is an important natural resource. The country has extensive forest areas where timber is harvested for local use as well as for export. It is used in the furniture industry and construction industry. Stone and gravel quarrying is another resource extraction industry in Ghana.



The food industry is one of the largest sectors. Processed foods such as cocoa, palm oil, fish, meat, and other agricultural products. Cocoa is processed into chocolate and other products.

Thanks to its Atlantic coastline, Ghana also has a significant fishing industry.


Services and other areas of the economy: tourism, transport, and services


Natural and historical attractions: Elmina and Cape Coast castles, Kumasi and Accra cities, and Kakum and Mole national parks.

The most important tourist attractions include Elmina Castle, which was built by Portuguese colonists in the 15th century and served as a trading post for slaves and gold. Other important sights are Cape Coast Castle, Mole National Park, and Lakes Bosumtwi and Volta.

There are beautiful beaches and popular resorts such as Kokrobite, Busua, and Cape Coast. Tourists can also visit traditional villages and experience local culture, dance, music, and crafts.


Waterparks in Ghana:


Form of government: presidential republic

Ghana is a presidential republic with a parliamentary system of government. The president is the head of state and holds executive power. Parliament consists of two chambers – the National Assembly and the Senate.

The National Assembly has 275 members who are elected for four years. The Senate has 100 members, of whom 30 are appointed by the President and the remaining 70 are elected for five-year terms. Parliament has the power to pass laws, approve the state budget, and control the executive branch.

The country is divided into ten regions, which are further divided into districts and cities. Each region has a governor who is appointed by the president and serves as the representative of executive power in that region.


Capital city: Accra

It is located in the southeast of the country, on the coast of the Gulf of Guinea.

Accra is an important economic center of the country, and there are a number of important institutions such as ministries, banks, embassies, and international organizations.

Accra’s top tourist attractions include the Kwame Nkrumah Memorial Park, which is named after the founder of independent Ghana, the National Museum of Ghana, which displays artifacts from Ghanaian history and culture, and Labadi Beach, which is a popular spot for tourists and locals.

However, Accra is also a city with high levels of pollution and insufficient infrastructure.


Area: 238 535 km2 (92 099 square miles)


Population: 32 200 000 (2022)

The largest ethnic group in Ghana is the Akan, who make up about 47% of the population. Other significant groups are the Mole-Dagbani (16%), the Ewe (14%), and the Ga-Adangbe (7%). It also has a large Muslim community (about 18% of the population), mainly in the northern part of the country.

The official language is English, but many other languages are also spoken in the country.

In recent decades, Ghana has seen urbanization, with many people migrating from rural areas to cities – particularly Accra and Kumasi.


UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 2


  1. Ashanti Traditional Dwellings (1980) – Remains of several villages with traditional buildings.
  2. Forts and Castles of Ghana (1979) – Fortified castles from the 15th-18th centuries along the Ghanaian coast which are the remains of Portuguese trading centers.


National parks: 7


  1. Mole National Park
  2. Kakum National Park
  3. Bia National Park
  4. Digya National Park
  5. Bui National Park
  6. Kyabobo National Park
  7. Bia West National Park