GUINEA

Date of establishment: October 2, 1958

Brief history:

  • 1958: On 2 October 1958, Guinea gained independence from France under the leadership of Ahmed Séka Touré, a historic moment in the creation of an independent state.
  • 1984: After the long reign of Ahmed Séka Touré, Lansano Conté took over. A period of political stability followed.
  • 2008: Following the death of Lansana Conté on 23 December 2008, Guinea descended into political turmoil, including a military coup.
  • 2010: The country’s first democratic elections were held, bringing Alpha Condé to power.
  • 2011: Guinea celebrated the 53rd anniversary of its independence.
  • 2020: Presidential elections took place in the country in a controversial environment.
  • 2021: President Alpha Condé was overthrown by a military coup in September 2021, which had a significant impact on the political situation in Guinea.

 

International abbreviation: GN

 

Currency: Guinean franc (GNF)

The Guinean franc is the official currency and is used in payments and trade throughout the country. The Guinean franc can be divided into smaller units called centimes, but these are not really used.

 

Internet domain: .gn

 

Dialing code: +224

 

Time zone: GMT 0

 

Geography:

Guinea is located on the west coast of Africa and has access to the Atlantic Ocean to the west. It borders a number of other African countries – Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Mali, and Senegal.

Most countries are mountainous. The central and eastern part of Guinea is covered by the Fouta Djallon mountain range, which consists of high mountains, valleys, and waterfalls. The western part of the country has mostly lowlands and coastal plains. The country is rich in rivers and water resources. The largest river is the Niger, which flows through the eastern part. Other important rivers are the Senegal, Gambia, and Milo, which are important sources for fishing, agriculture and transport.

The country has a short but significant Atlantic coastline. This gives the country access to the sea, supporting fishing and trading activities.

 

Highest peak: Mont Nimba 1 752 m (5 748 feet) above sea level.

Characterized by beautiful mountain lands, rainforests, and an important ecosystem, the Nimba Mountains lie on the border between Guinea, Liberia, and Cote d’Ivoire.

 

Climate:

Most of Guinea has a tropical climate. This means that there are high temperatures throughout the year with little seasonal variation. The average temperature varies between 24°C (75°F) and 30°C (86°F). The rainy season lasts from June to November. During this time, the country experiences heavy rainfall, which can often be intense and cause flooding.

The dry season lasts from December to May. During this time, rainfall decreases and temperatures can be high, especially during February and March.

Guinea’s Atlantic coast has a significant influence on the climate. Ocean currents make the coast generally wetter and temperatures milder than inland.

 

Fauna and flora:

Savannah elephants are one of the characteristic species of African megafauna and they inhabit various regions of the country, including savannah and national parks.

Lions used to be common but have become an endangered species due to hunting and habitat loss. The Guinean rainforest is home to chimpanzees.

The hippopotamus inhabits rivers and lakes, as do various species of crocodile, such as the Nile crocodile.

The Guinean fauna includes various species of birds, such as parrots, hawks, and various types of waterfowl. The red-brown antelope inhabits savannahs and grasslands.

The eastern part, especially the Fouta Djallon mountain range, is covered with beautiful rainforests, where various types of trees, orchids, and ferns grow.

Savanna areas are rich in grasses and shrubs, which is typical of savannah ecosystems.

The coastal areas are home to extensive mangrove forests that provide important habitats for a variety of fish and bird species.

 

Agriculture:

The main crops grown are rice, cassava, bananas, sweet potatoes, groundnuts, maize, and oil palms. Rice is the most important crop and forms the staple food for most of the population.

Guinea is also known for producing coffee and cocoa, which are important export crops. Livestock breeding plays a role in agriculture, with sheep, goats, and poultry being kept.

Many still use traditional farming methods such as hand ploughing, hand sowing, and harvesting. Mechanized farming is less common, especially in rural areas.

 

Extraction of raw materials:

Guinea is one of the world’s largest producers of bauxite, the main raw material for aluminum production. Bauxite exports are of vital importance to the economy.

Iron ore is mined, which is an important raw material for the production of iron and steel. Gold mining is also gaining in importance.

There are also diamond deposits, although diamond mining is often done illegally.

Apart from bauxite, iron ore, gold and diamonds, various other ores and minerals such as chromite, uranium, titanium and others are also mined.

 

Industry:

With the development of infrastructure, including roads, ports, power projects, construction has become an industry.

The woodworking industry includes the extraction and processing of wood for construction and furniture. There are textile factories that produce clothing and textile products for the local market. The Guinean refinery processes crude oil into various petroleum products such as petrol, diesel, and heating oil.

 

Services and other areas of the economy: transport, services, and tourism

 

Natural and historical attractions: the cities of Conakry and Labé, the areas of Fouta Djallon and Sobané, and the Mount Nimba nature reserve.

Tourism in Guinea is not as developed as in some other African countries. The country still offers some attractive destinations and opportunities for travelers who are willing to explore lesser-known and exotic places. Guinea’s Atlantic coast has beautiful beaches and opportunities for fishing and water sports. Coastal towns such as Conakry also offer opportunities to explore local culture and gastronomy. In the northern part of Guinea lies the Fouta Djallon desert, ideal for adventure and expeditions.

The country has several historical monuments, including the fortress in Conakry, which is a remnant of the colonial legacy.

 

Waterparks in Guinea:

 

Form of government: presidential republic

The president is the supreme leader of the country and holds executive power. They are elected in regular presidential elections for a five-year term.

The government is a unitary executive in which the president holds the role of head of state and prime minister.

Guinea’s has a unicameral parliament known as the National Assembly. The National Assembly is tasked with passing laws and representing the interests of citizens.

The judiciary in Guinea is independent and consists of a system of civil courts, administrative courts, and a constitutional court. The highest judicial authority is the Supreme Court.

 

Capital city: Conakry

It is located on the west coast of the country and is surrounded by the Kalou Peninsula.

Conakry was settled by the French in the 19th century and became part of the French Empire. After Guinea’s independence in 1958, Conakry became the capital of the newly formed republic.

Some of the places of interest in Conakry include the National Palace, Gamal Abdel Nasser University, local markets, and the Samory Touré monument.

 

Area: 245 857 km2 (94 926 square miles)

 

Population: 13 240 000 (2022)

Guinea has a diverse ethnic composition, with the Peulh being the main group. Most of the population professes Islam, which is the main religion, followed by traditional African beliefs and Christianity. The official language is French, which is a consequence of the period when Guinea was a French colony.

The Guinean population faces several problems in the health sector, as there is a high incidence of various diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis, as well as malnutrition.

 

UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 1

 

1. Mount Nimba Nature Reserve (1981) – A strictly controlled nature reserve that protects the rich flora and fauna.

 

National parks: 2

 

  1. Badiar National Park
  2. Upper Niger National Park