LIBYA

Date of establishment: December 24, 1951

Brief history:

  • Antiquity: The territory of today’s Libya was inhabited by various tribes such as Phoenicians, Greeks, and Carthaginians.
  • 7th century BCE: Libya became part of the ancient Roman Empire.
  • 7th century CE: After the Arab expansion, Libya became part of the Muslim world.
  • 16th century: The territory of Libya was under the rule of the Ottoman Empire.
  • 19th century: Beginning of Italian colonial rule over Libya.
  • 1951: Libya gained independence from Italy and became a kingdom with King Idris I as head of state.
  • 1969: Muammar Gaddafi overthrew King Idris I and established a military regime.
  • 1980–1988: Libya was involved in conflict with the US and other Western countries.
  • 2011: An uprising against Gaddafi took place during the Arab Spring, resulting in the fall of his regime.
  • 2011–present: Libya has experienced political instability, conflict between various factions, and civil war.

 

International abbreviation: LY

 

Currency: Libyan dinar LYD

The Libyan dinar is the legal tender of Libya. The Libyan currency has the name dinar in common with several currencies of states that were part of the Ottoman Empire in the past. The sub-unit is called a dirham.

 

Internet domain: .ly

 

Dialing code: +218

 

Time zone: GMT+2

 

Geography:

Libya is located in the north of Africa and shares borders with several countries – Egypt, Sudan, Chad, Niger, Algeria, and Tunisia.

Most of the territory is desert. It has an extensive Mediterranean coastline in the north. Several major cities are located there, including Tripoli (the capital) and Benghazi. The interior is made up mainly of desert and semi-desert areas. The largest desert area in the country is the Libyan Desert.

In the western part there is a mountain range called the Tibesti Mountains, which lies on the border with Algeria and Chad. In desert areas there are oases that serve as important places for water supply and agriculture.

 

Highest peak: Bikku Bitti 2 267 m (7 438 feet) above sea level.

The peak is located in the Tibesti Mountains on the border with Chad. The area is characterized by its mountainous landscape and is an important geographical feature in North Africa.

 

Climate:

Most of Libya belongs to the region with a Saharan climate. Temperatures in the summer months can reach very high values, although at night they can drop to relatively low values.

Coastal areas have a milder Mediterranean climate. Here the temperatures are more pleasant. Precipitation is higher than inland, especially during the winter season. Strong desert winds known as the “sirocco” or “Ghibli” occasionally pass through the interior. They can bring hot air and swirling sand. In oases located in desert regions, conditions are milder due to the availability of water.

 

Fauna and flora:

Desert-adapted plants such as acacias, cacti, and others are found in the desert regions of Libya. In oases where water is available, you can find agricultural crops such as palm trees, olive trees, date trees, and other species. The Tibesti Mountains, including the area around Bikku Bitti, are home to chamois and other mountain game.

Desert animals include various rodents such as gerbils and dormice. Snakes, lizards, and insects adapted to the desert environment can also be found. A variety of fish and marine animals, including dolphins, can be found in the Mediterranean region around the coast.

 

Agriculture:

Due to the extreme dryness of most of Libya, agricultural activity is concentrated around oases. In these oases, enough water is available for agriculture and therefore crops such as dates, olives, melons, and others are grown.

Coastal areas, which have a Mediterranean climate, are suitable for growing crops such as grapes, tomatoes, and cereals. The area is also important for fishing.

Pastoralism is practiced in some parts of the country, especially in desert areas where goats and sheep are raised. Due to the limited possibilities of its own food production, the country is dependent on food imports, including grain, meat, dairy, and other products.

 

Extraction of raw materials:

Libya has extensive reserves of oil and natural gas, and is one of the main producers in Africa. Oil and gas production makes up a significant share of Libya’s GDP and revenue from oil imports. The main oil fields are in the Western Desert, Sarir and Messla.

There are some reserves of brown coal in the country, but the extraction of this raw material is not as significant as the extraction of oil.

It also has iron ore reserves. It quarries gypsum, which is used in the construction industry. Marble is also quarried.

 

Industry:

The country extracts oil and natural gas and exports them to the world market. Crude oil is also processed in refineries in the domestic market.

Construction is another important industry. Given the need for infrastructural development and post-conflict reconstruction, it has significant potential.

The food industry involves the processing of food, including the processing of fruits, vegetables, and fish. Clothing, textile products and footwear are produced.

The chemical industry produces various chemical products here, including fertilizers, plastics, and pharmaceuticals.

 

Services and other areas of the economy: services

 

Natural and historical attractions: Cities Tripoli and Benghazi, the Sahara, the Mediterranean coast, and the monuments of Cyrene, Sabrata and Leptis Magna

Libya is home to many historical and archaeological sites from the period of ancient Rome, Greece, and other ancient civilizations.

The Mediterranean coast offers beautiful beaches and opportunities for water sports. The Sahara, which covers most of the territory, has its own charm. Trips to the desert, desert safaris, and visits to oases are attractive to tourists. Traditional music, dance, handicrafts, and local festivals can also be of interest to travelers looking for an authentic experience.

 

Waterparks in Libya:

 

Form of government: republic

The polity has evolved over the course of this country’s history and has been influenced by political events, conflicts, and regime changes.

Executive power has been divided between several actors, which was one of the consequences of political instability after the overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi’s regime in 2011. There was a government that was temporarily divided into two main rival governments in Tripoli and Tobruk. Both of these governments had limited control over the country’s territory.

The legislative body was the General National Congress (GNC), later Nahda, until 2014, when the Tobruk Diet was established, which included deputies from the eastern part of the country. There was also a High State Council as a second legislative body.

The political and security situation is very complex and unstable, which has affected the functioning of the state. There was an attempt to set up a Government of National Unity, but this has not succeeded.

 

Capital city: Tripoli

It lies on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the northwest of Libya. The city has a rich history and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.

Tripoli was founded in the 7th century BCE by the Phoenicians and became an important trading center in the Mediterranean region. The city has a port that serves for trade and shipping, and is also home to some government institutions and businesses.

 

Area: 1 759 541 km2 (679 363 square miles)

 

Population: 7 050 000 (2022)

The largest ethnic group are the Arabs, who make up the majority of the population. In addition to Arabs, smaller groups such as Berbers, Tuaregs, and Toubou live there.

The official language is Arabic. Berber is also widely used, especially in some communities. In areas related to international trade and diplomacy, you will also encounter communication in English and French. Islam is the dominant religion, and most of the population is Muslim. There is also a minority of the population who practice Christianity and other religious beliefs.

 

UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 5

 

  1. Kyrene Archaeological Site (1982) – An ancient archaeological site, known for its Greek and Roman monuments.
  2. Leptis Magna Archaeological Site (1982) – An important archaeological site that contains well-preserved remains of an ancient Roman city.
  3. Sabráta Archaeological Site (1982) – Another important archaeological site in Libya, with the remains of an ancient city.
  4. Rock paintings at Tadrart Acacus (1985) – Rock paintings in the Libyan desert known for their exceptional historical and cultural value.
  5. Old Town of Ghadames (1986) – A historic town, known for its unique architectural and urban elements that reflect traditional life in the desert environment.

 

National parks: 6

 

  1. Abughilan National Park
  2. El Kauf National Park
  3. Karabolli National Park
  4. Naggaza National Park
  5. Rajma National Park
  6. Sirman National Park