Date of establishment: October 1, 1960

Brief history:

  • Arrival of the Europeans: In the 15th century, Portuguese explorers came to the territory of Nigeria. Later, in the 19th century, European colonial powers, especially Great Britain, began to spread. The British established the British colony of Nigeria, which included various ethnic groups.
  • Independence: Nigeria gained independence from British colonial rule on October 1, 1960. It became a federal republic and elected Nnamdi Azikiwe as its first president.
  • Political Instability: The country has experienced a series of political upheavals, military coups, and periods of political instability after independence. This included a period of military rule and a civil war (1967-1970), also known as the Biafran War.
  • Return to civilian rule: In 1999, Nigeria returned to democracy after military rule ended. A multi-party political system was restored and Nigeria began electing its presidents in democratic elections.
  • Economic challenges: The country is known for its rich oil reserves, yet it faces challenges related to poverty, corruption, inequality, and underdevelopment of infrastructure.


International abbreviation: NG


Currency: Nigerian naira NGN

The naira is divided into smaller units called kobo. The kobo is used for small transactions and is one-hundredth of a naira. The naira is the official currency of the country and is used for all financial transactions.


Internet domain: .ng


Dialing code: +234


Time zone: GMT +1



Nigeria has approximately 853 kilometers (530 miles) of coastline along the Gulf of Guinea. This area includes the cities of Lagos and Port Harcourt and is an important economic and commercial center of the country.

The interior consists of different types of landscape, including savannas, mountains, lakes and rivers. The major rivers in Nigeria are the Niger, Benue, and Kaduna, which are important for agriculture and transportation.

Most of Nigeria belongs to the region of sub-Saharan Africa. In the east of the country lie the mountains of the Jos and Obudu plateaus, which offer beautiful landscapes.

In the northern part there are desert areas, including the Saharan, which stretches to the border with Niger in the north.


Highest peak: Chappal Waddi 2 419 m (7 936 feet) above sea level.

It is located in the Shebshi Mountains in the northern part of the country. Near the border with Cameroon.



Most of Nigeria belongs to the region of sub-Saharan Africa and has a savannah climate. This includes dry and rainy seasons. Dry seasons can be extremely hot with high temperatures, while rainy seasons bring higher humidity and rainfall.

In the northern part, especially near the Sahara, there are desert areas with a hot and dry climate. Temperatures here can be extremely high and precipitation minimal.

The Niger River Delta, located in the south of the country, has a humid tropical climate. Here the rainy season is longer with significant rainy periods. This area is known for its rich vegetation and agricultural production. The Jos and Obudu plateaus have a milder climate due to higher altitudes.

The Atlantic coast has a tropical climate with high humidity and rainfall. Temperatures are more pleasant, but the area can be affected by occasional tropical cyclones.


Fauna and flora:

In the savannah areas, you can find a variety of wildlife, including elephants, lions, leopards, cheetahs, zebras, kudus, buffaloes, and many more.

Nigeria is home to many species of birds, including parrots, eagles, pelicans, and cormorants. Many species of fish, turtles, and crocodiles live in coastal areas. The area is also an important nesting site for sea turtles such as the loggerhead turtle. The country is home to various primates – chimpanzees, gorillas, and others. There are many species of snakes and lizards in the country.

Savannah areas are rich in different types of grass, trees, and shrubs. Acacias and baobabs are typical trees for this area. In the southwestern part there are rainforests, which have rich vegetation such as palm trees, vines, and orchids. Nigeria has a number of endemic species of plants and flowers, including hibiscus and various medicinal plants.

The coastal areas are known for their mangrove forests, which are an important habitat for many marine animals.



The main crops grown here include maize, cassava, rice, sweet potatoes, groundnuts, peas, soybeans, and bananas. Rice and maize are staple foods in the Nigerian diet.

Nigeria also produces coffee and cocoa, which are important for export. Cattle breeding is especially important in the northern regions. Cattle, sheep, goats, and other farm animals are raised there. Fishing is also an important livelihood.


Extraction of raw materials:

Nigeria is one of the largest oil producers in Africa and has extensive natural gas reserves. The oil industry is a significant part of Niger’s economy and oil revenues are a large part of the state budget. It has coal reserves, with mining taking place mainly in the Enugu region in the south-eastern part of the country. It is mainly used for the production of electricity and industrial processes.

However, mining of precious metals such as gold or tin is less developed compared to oil and coal. The country has extensive reserves of mineral resources, including iron ore, limestone, kaolin, salt, phosphates, and others. Thanks to extensive forests, wood is an important export product.



Oil drilling, refining and processing are key industries. Refineries process crude oil for domestic consumption and export.

The country is looking to develop infrastructure, including roads, bridges, airports, and ports, which brings opportunities for the construction industry.

Food industry processed foods such as cocoa, coffee, palm oil, dairy products, and others. The textile industry faces a lot of competition from other countries.


Services and other areas of the economy: transport, telecommunications, and banking


Natural and historical attractions: Yankari and Gashaka Gumti national parks, the Afi Region, Sukur, Enugu, Zuma, Lake Chad, Abuja, and beaches

Nigeria has a rich cultural heritage. Local culture, including traditional arts, crafts, and festivals, provides an attractive experience for tourists. There is beautiful natural scenery, including savannah, rainforest, mountains, lakes, and rivers. National parks such as Yankari and Cross River are home to wildlife and good places for safaris and bird watching.

Coastal towns such as Lagos and Calabar offer opportunities for beach relaxation and water activities. These places are also known for their rich culinary scene with local dishes and fish specialties.


Waterparks in Nigeria:


Form of government: presidential republic

The main state authority in Nigeria is the president, who is the head of state and government and is elected for a four-year term. The president has executive power and appoints ministers.

Legislative power is divided between two chambers – the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate is composed of 109 senators, while the House of Representatives has 360 deputies. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body in the country and has jurisdiction over constitutional law and oversight of legality.


Capital city: Abuja

In 1976, it was decided to move the capital from Lagos to the newly built metropolis in the central part of the country. It was a city on a green field site, similar to, for example, Brasilia. Abuja became the capital in 1991. To this day, the city has not managed to create a truly metropolitan character. For a long time, Abuja was an almost empty city where officials moved from Lagos.

The relocation of the capital was done to decentralize government structures and allow for more even development in different parts of the country.


Area: 923 768 km2 (356 669 square miles)


Population: 226 000 000 (2022)

Nigeria is characterized by great ethnic and religious diversity. It has more than 250 ethnic groups and nations, with the Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, and Igbo being the largest.

The most widespread religion is Islam, which is predominant in the northern parts of the country. Christianity is widespread in the southern and central parts. Nigeria has over 500 different languages, the most widely spoken being English (the official language), Hausa, Yoruba, and Igbo. Each ethnic group has its own language, making Nigeria a very linguistically diverse country.


UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 2


  1. Sukur (1999) – In the landscape of Sukur, in addition to the Hidi Palace, there are terraced fields, their sacred symbols and numerous remains of a once flourishing iron industry.
  2. Osun-Osogbo Sacred Grove (2005) – Sacred grove with the pantheon of the Yoruba.


National parks: 8


  1. Chad Basin National Park
  2. Cross River National Park
  3. Gashaka Gumti National Park
  4. Kainji National Park
  5. Kamuku National Park
  6. Okomu National Park
  7. Old Oyo National Park
  8. Yankari National Park