Date of establishment: July 1, 1960

Brief history:

  • 19th century: Somalia was divided between various European powers. British Somaliland, Italian Somaliland and French Somalia were colonies, while the British Protectorate covered territory in northern Somalia.
  • 1940-1941: During the Second World War, British and Italian troops occupied the territory of Somalia.
  • 1941: After the end of World War II, Italian Somaliland was handed over to British administration and the British Protectorate of Somaliland was formed.
  • 1950s: Figures from various parts of Somalia began agitating for unification and independence.
  • 1960: On July 1, 1960, the British protectorate of Somaliland was united with the Italian part to form the Somali Republic.
  • 1969: General Siad Barre seized power in a military coup and installed an authoritarian regime.
  • 1980-1991: Somalia faced severe drought and famine, leading to a humanitarian crisis.
  • 1991: In the wake of a rebellion and civil war, the regime of General Siad Barre was overthrown and the country descended into chaos and anarchy.
  • 2006: The Islamic Courts Union took control of much of southern Somalia and sought to restore stability. This prompted the intervention of Ethiopia and the international community.
  • 2012: A new federal government was established with the support of the UN, but armed conflict and terrorist activities continued in the country.
  • Today: Somalia remains a country with security challenges, political instability, and poverty. The international community, including the United Nations, continues its efforts to restore stability and development in the country.


International abbreviation: SO


Currency: Somali shilling (SOS)

The Somali shilling was introduced after the country became independent and unified in 1960. One Somali shilling is further divided into 100 cents.


Internet domain: .so


Dialing code: +252


Time zone: GMT +3



Somalia has an Indian Ocean coastline that is over 3 300 kilometers (2 051 miles) long.

The interior is predominantly mountainous and rocky, with prominent mountain ranges such as the Karkaar and Golis mountains. The only major watercourse in the country is the Jubba River in the south. Much of the country is covered by desert terrain. One of the largest deserts in the country is the Guban Desert, which stretches along the northern coast.

Somalia has several islands in the Indian Ocean, including Socotra, which lies near the coast.


Highest peak: Shimbiris 2 460 m (8 071 feet) above sea level.

This peak is located in the Cal Madow Mountains in northern Somalia.



Most of Somalia falls under the Sahelian climate, which means the country has a long dry season and a short rainy season. The rains usually fall during a short period from April to June when the monsoon rains arrive from the Indian Ocean. These rainy seasons are crucial for agriculture and the water supply.

The coastal areas on the east coast of Somalia have a milder and wetter climate as they are influenced by the Indian Ocean. Temperatures here are usually lower and humidity higher.

The interior, especially at lower elevations, can experience extremely high temperatures during dry periods. Temperatures in the summer months can often reach 40°C (104°F) or more.

The dry seasons are long and lead to water shortages. This has a major impact on agriculture and the water supply for residents.

Winds are frequent in the country, including dry and hot desert winds called harmattan.


Fauna and flora:

Chamois live in the mountainous regions of Somalia, especially in the Cal Madow Mountains. Among the beasts that inhabit the land are lion, hyena, caracal, serval and other cats.

Nile crocodiles and sea crocodiles live in rivers and lakes. Somalia is home to many species of birds, including raptors, owls, partridges, ostriches, and more.

Acacia trees provide shade and food for many animals. In some desert areas, cacti grow that are adapted to dry conditions. In the oasis and coastal areas, palm trees grow to provide shade and fruit.



Major agricultural crops include cereals (mainly maize, wheat, and barley), rice, sugarcane, bananas, citrus fruits, grapes, mangoes, and other fruits and vegetables.

Residents often keep livestock, including sheep, goats, cattle, and camels. Most farmers still use traditional farming methods and tools, which can limit productivity and sustainability.

Agriculture is often dependent on the rains. Lack of rain can lead to crop failure and famine. International organizations try to help in areas such as irrigation, farmer training and food distribution. Fishing is an important part of the diet and economy, but has been affected by problems related to piracy and illegal fishing.


Extraction of raw materials:

Somalia has potential for gold mining, especially in the southern and central regions of the country. Iron ore reserves have been found in some regions. However, mining has been limited by a lack of infrastructure and political conflict. Black coal reserves have been discovered in the Galguduud region of central Somalia.

The country is known for the mining of precious stones such as opals and emeralds. These stones are often mined illegally. Salt reserves are mined from salt lakes and pans.



Industry in Somalia is at a low level and it is affected by political instability, insufficient infrastructure, and long-term conflict in the country.

A limited industrial sector, includes the production of food, textiles, small-scale products, and shipbuilding. However, most of these industries are very minor.


Services and other areas of the economy:


Natural and historical attractions: Kismayo and Lag Badana national parks, the coast, and the Cal Madow Mountains

Somalia has a beautiful and diverse landscape full of mountains, beaches, deserts and savannah. The Cal Madow Mountains in the north and the coastal areas of eastern Somalia offer potential for hiking, rock climbing, and beach activities. The country has a rich cultural and historical heritage, archaeological sites, and cultural festivals. The Somali coast offers water activities such as diving, snorkeling, and fishing.


Waterparks in Somalia:


Form of government: parliamentary republic

The president is the head of state. He is elected by the parliament and has powers in the field of foreign policy and defense. The Somali Parliament has two chambers – the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. The Chamber of Deputies is elected by the citizens, while the Senate includes representatives of the federal states. Parliament has powers relating to legislation and oversight of the executive.

Somalia’s polity is still a work in progress, although it is trying to create a federal and democratic system that takes into account the interests of the country’s various ethnic and regional groups.


Capital city: Mogadishu

It is located on the east coast of Somalia, on the shores of the Indian Ocean. Mogadishu has a rich history. It was an important trading center. In the past, it was ruled by various empires and nations, including Islamic sultanates. During the colonial period it was part of the Italian Somali Protectorate.

The port of Mogadishu was historically one of the most important on the east coast of Africa, providing trade links with other countries. Despite the conflicts, the port remains an important point for imports and exports.


Area: 637 655 km2 (246 200 square miles)


Population: 17 070 000 (2022)

Somalis make up the majority of the population, they are the largest ethnic group. They have a common language, Somali. At the same time, Arabic is widely used. Somalia is also home to a smaller number of Bantu ethnic groups such as the Rahanweyn, Digil, and Mirifle. These people have different origins and speak different languages.

Islam is the dominant religion, and most Somalis are Sunni Muslims. Islam plays a significant role in society and culture.


UNESCO World Heritage Sites:


National parks: 15


  1. Arbawerow National Park
  2. Baraako Madow National Park
  3. Buloburto National Park
  4. Bushbushle National Park
  5. Daalo Mountain National Park
  6. Ga’an Libah National Park
  7. Hobyo National Park
  8. Las’anod National Park
  9. Ras Hafun National Park
  10. Shoonto National Park
  11. Taleh-El Chebet National Park
  12. Zayla National Park
  13. Jilib National Park
  14. Kismayo National Park
  15. Lag Badana National Park