SUDAN

Date of establishment: January 1, 1956

Brief history:

  • Antiquity and the Middle Ages: The territory of present-day Sudan was historically part of various African kingdoms and empires, including the kingdoms of Kush, Makuria, and Funj. The region was also a crossroads of trade routes leading through the Sahara.
  • Ottoman rule: During the 19th century, Ottoman Egypt began to expand its control over Sudan, leading to long-term Ottoman rule.
  • British-Egyptian rule: In 1899, Sudan became a joint British-Egyptian protectorate, known as the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. This period lasted until independence.
  • Independence: On January 1, 1956, the country gained independence from the United Kingdom and Egypt.
  • Political Instability: Since independence, Sudan has experienced political instability and conflict between various ethnic and religious groups.
  • First Sudanese Civil War (1955-1972): After independence, the first civil war broke out between southern Sudan, which had majority Christian communities, and the north, which was majority Muslim. In 1972, a peace agreement was concluded that ended the conflict and granted South Sudan autonomy.
  • Second Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005): In 1983, a second civil war broke out between the north and the south, this time over religious and ethnic differences, economic issues, and control over oil resources in southern Sudan. The war lasted until 2005, when the Naivasha Peace Agreement was concluded.
  • Emergence of South Sudan: In 2011, South Sudan was declared an independent state following an independence referendum that was part of the Naivasha Peace Agreement.
  • Ongoing conflicts: Even after the independence of South Sudan in 2011, conflicts and violence continued in the Darfur and Nubia regions of Sudan.
  • Present: Sudan still faces political and economic challenges and conflicts, even after partition. Efforts to achieve peace and stability in the region continue.

 

International abbreviation: SD

 

Currency: Sudanese pound SDG

The currency is divided into smaller units called piastres, which are hundredths of the Sudanese pound.

 

Internet domain: .sd

 

Dialing code: +249

 

Time zone: GMT +2

 

Geography:

Most of the territory of Sudan is covered by the Sahara Desert. This area is characterized by a dry climate and little vegetation.

Sudan is crossed by several important rivers. The most important of these is the Nile, which flows through the country from south to north and serves as the main source of water for agriculture and human consumption. Other rivers are, for example, the White Nile and the Blue Nile, which join near the capital city of Khartoum. The eastern part is characterized by mountains such as the Imatong in the south and the Nubian Mountains in the east.

There are several lakes in the south of the country, the largest of which is Lake Nasser. Sudan has a short Red Sea coastline on the eastern edge of the country.

 

Highest peak: Deriba 3 042 m (9 980 feet) above sea level.

It is located in the Jabal Marrah volcanic massif in the Darfur region in the west of the country. The area has an exceptional geology and is known for its beautiful landscape and the presence of craters.

 

Climate:

The northern part of Sudan is made up of the Sahara Desert. The region has an extremely dry and hot desert climate with high temperatures during the day and low temperatures at night. Rainfall is rare. The central part has a steppe climate with hot summers and mild winters, and rainfall is also limited. This area is suitable for pastoralism and agriculture. The southern part has a savannah climate with two distinct rainy seasons. The first rainy season runs from April to October and the second from December to February.

The Jabal Marrah region, home to the country’s highest peak, has a climate with higher rainfall and cooler temperatures, creating suitable living conditions.

 

Fauna and flora:

Camels are a traditional animal in the desert regions of northern Sudan. They are used for transport, meat, and milk. In some parts, especially in national parks and savannah, lions and other species of large carnivores live. Elephants are an endangered species, but some populations can be found in protected areas such as Radom National Park. There are many species of antelope in the country, including gazelle and kudu. These species are common in savannah and steppes. Crocodiles live on some rivers and lakes.

Desert areas are dominated by dry and hardy desert vegetation, including grasses and some types of shrubs. In the south of Sudan there are palm groves, the fruits of which are an important food source.

 

Agriculture:

Major crops include sorghum, millet, maize, wheat, barley, rice, cotton, and sugarcane. Sudan is also known for its production of oil crops, especially groundnuts and sesame, which are used to make oil. Livestock farming, including sheep, goats, and cattle, plays an important role in rural areas. Cattle provide meat, milk, and other products for local consumption and trade.

Sudan faces several challenges in the field of agriculture such as drought and insufficient irrigation infrastructure. Conflict in some parts of the country also limits opportunities for farmers. Some agricultural products such as cotton are important exports and contribute to the country’s economy.

 

Extraction of raw materials:

Sudan has extensive oil reserves, which are mainly extracted in the south of the country. The oil industry is one of the main pillars of the Sudanese economy, and oil exports represent a significant source of income. Gold mining is another important branch of the mining industry. Precious stones such as diamonds, emeralds, and rubies are also mined.

Iron ore is mined in some areas, which is an important raw material for steel production. On the territory of Sudan there are deposits of bauxite, which is used to produce aluminum.

Vast reserves of salt are extracted from the salt pans and used for a variety of purposes, including the food and chemicals industries.

 

Industry:

The food industry is one of the main sectors in Sudan. It includes the processing of foods such as flour, sugar, oil, milk, and meat. The textiles and clothing industry has a long tradition, although these are often small family businesses. The chemicals industry includes the production of chemicals and fertilizers. Infrastructure projects, buildings, and roads are being constructed in the country.

The country has several oil refineries that process extracted oil into various petroleum products, including gasoline, diesel, and kerosene.

 

Services and other areas of the economy: maritime transport and oil pipelines

 

Natural and historical attractions: the Red Sea coast and Sangeneb marine national parks, Lac Badana, Jebel Barkal, the Pyramids of Nuri, El Kurru, Musawarat Al-Sufra, Meroe, and the Nile

Sudan has a rich history and archaeological treasures that attract historians and archaeologists from all over the world. Among the most famous monuments is the ancient city of Meroe with its pyramids and royal tombs. The country is home to various ethnic groups and cultures. Tourists can meet the local tribes and learn about their traditional way of life, music, and crafts.

The desert landscape of Sudan is fascinating for adventurers and travelers. Tourists can go on desert expeditions to explore the beauty of the Sahara and other deserts.

Tourists can take boat cruises on the Nile and observe the natural beauty and local life along the river. Several national parks and protected areas offer opportunities to observe wildlife and natural beauty. On the east coast of the Red Sea, there is a wonderful underwater world with amazing coral reefs and diverse marine fauna.

 

Waterparks in Sudan:

 

Form of government: presidential republic

After the fall of long-time president Omar al-Bashir in 2019, a transitional government was formed consisting of both military officials and civilian activists and politicians.

This transitional government was tasked with preparing the way for democratic elections and making the transition to a civilian regime. Two main institutions were agreed upon: the Military Council for the Protection of the Revolution and the Transitional Sovereign Council. The civilian part of the government had a president and ministers who were appointed from among civil society.

The transitional period was to last until democratic elections were held, during which a new government was elected and a new constitution for Sudan was drawn up. During this period, negotiations on the future political organization of the country took place and efforts were made to draw up a new constitution.

 

Capital city: Khartoum

Khartoum is located in the central part of Sudan, near the border with Egypt. It is the largest city in the country and its location at the confluence of the two Niles has given it key importance for trade and transport.

The city has a rich history that dates to ancient times. It was an important trading center and was completely rebuilt during different historical periods. During the colonial period, it was ruled by British and Egyptian colonial forces.

 

Area: 1 886 068 km2 (728 215 square miles)

 

Population: 48 000 000 (2022)

Sudan is home to many ethnic groups, with Arabs and Afro-Sudanese being the largest. Arabs make up the majority of the population in the northern part of the country, while Afro-Sudanese predominate in the southern part of Sudan.

Islam plays a significant role here and the majority of the population is Muslim. In North Sudan, Islam has long been the dominant religion. In South Sudan, which became an independent state in 2011, Christianity and traditional African religions are more common. Arabic is the most common language and is used in public administration and education.

 

UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 3

 

  1. Gebel Barkal and excavations in the Napatan region (2003) – A large rock formation and archaeological site located north of the capital.
  2. Archaeological sites on the island of Meroe (2011) – Archaeological sites in the Nile region from the period of the Kingdom of Kush (8th century BCE to 4th century CE).
  3. Sanganeb and Dungonab Bay Marine National Parks – Mukkawar Island (2016) – Two separate sites comprising coral reefs with diverse aquatic fauna and flora.

 

National parks: 5

 

  1. Al Dinder National Park
  2. Jebel Hassania National Park
  3. Radom National Park
  4. Sanganeb National Park
  5. Suakin Archipelago National Park