TANZANIA

Date of establishment: April 26, 1964

Brief history:

  • Prehistoric times – Settlement of the area of present-day Tanzania dates back to prehistoric times, and the area developed a diverse culture and commercial activities, including trading in spices and ivory.
  • 8th century – Arab traders began to visit the coast of today’s Tanzania and established settlements.
  • 9th century – European explorers and conquerors such as David Livingstone and Henry Morton Stanley came to the area. There were a number of Arab and European colonial interests at the time.
  • 1885 – The German East Africa Company gained control of most of what is now Tanzania.
  • After the First World War – In 1919, part of Tanzania fell to Great Britain and became a British mandate under the name of Tanganyika. The rest of the territory remained under German control.
  • 1961 – Tanganyika gained independence under first President Julia Nyerere.
  • 1963 – Zanzibar gained independence from Great Britain.
  • 1964 – Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the United Republic of Tanzania.
  • 1970 – Nyerere’s government launched a socialist policy known as “ujamaa,” which aimed to collectivize agriculture and develop the countryside.
  • 1980 – Nyerere resigned and was replaced by Ali Hassan Mwinyi.
  • 1990 – Mwinyi began economic reforms and a gradual transition to capitalism.
  • 1992 – A new constitution was adopted, allowing for multi-party politics.
  • 1995 – Benjamin Mkapa was elected president in the first multi-party elections.
  • 21st century – Tanzania continues to enjoy political stability and economic growth, but also faces challenges such as problems with corruption, healthcare, and education.

 

International abbreviation: TZ

 

Currency: Tanzanian shilling (TZS)

The Tanzanian shilling is divided into smaller units called cents. Banknotes are available in different denominations of 500, 1 000, 2 000, 5 000, and 10 000 Tanzanian shillings.

 

Internet domain: .tz

 

Dialing code: +255

 

Time zone: GMT+3

 

Geography:

Tanzania is located on the east coast of Africa by the Indian Ocean. It borders several African states: Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique. It has a long coastline on the Indian Ocean, giving it access to the sea, and is home to several beautiful beaches and islands. The interior is characterized by various types of landscape, including mountains, savannah, lakes, and forests.

The country has many large lakes, including Lake Victoria, which is one of the largest freshwater lakes in the world, while Lake Tanganyika is the second deepest lake in the world.

It is home to many famous national parks and game reserves, including Serengeti National Park, Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tarangire National Park and Manyara Lake National Park. These areas are known for their abundant wildlife and are popular safari destinations.

The most famous islands of Tanzania include Zanzibar and Pemba, which are known for their beautiful beaches, historic cities, and cultural heritage.

 

Highest peak: Kilimanjaro 5 872 m (19 265 feet) above sea level.

Kilimanjaro is a volcano located near the border with Kenya and is also the highest peak in Africa. It is one of the most popular climbing destinations.

 

Climate:

The coastal areas of Tanzania, including cities such as Dar es Salaam, have a tropical maritime climate with high temperatures and high humidity for most of the year. The rainy seasons can be divided into short rainy season (November to December) and a long rainy season (March to May).

The interior, where the Serengeti and Ngorongoro are located, has a milder and drier climate with significant seasonal changes. The dry season runs from June to October and is an ideal time for safaris as animals congregate around water sources. The rainy season is from November to May and includes short periods of rain and thunderstorms.

Kilimanjaro and the Rwenzori Mountains have an alpine climate with cold temperatures and snow. There can be snow all year round on Kilimanjaro.

 

Fauna and flora:

Tanzania is home to some of Africa’s most iconic animals, including the lion, leopard, elephant, rhinoceros, and buffalo. These species are often found in Serengeti and Ngorongoro National Parks.

It is also known for its population of ruminants such as zebras, gazelles, giraffes, and kudu. There are more than 1 000 species of birds, including puffins, eagles, pelicans. and flamingos. Lake Manyara National Park is a popular destination for spotting them.

Primates such as chimpanzees as well as marsupials also live there. The most famous location for chimpanzee viewing is Gombe Stream National Park.

Tanzania has several protected rainforests, especially in the west of the country. This area is rich in different types of trees, ferns, and orchids.

The inland savannas are home to typical African trees and shrubs, such as acacias and baobabs. The coastal areas are lined with mangrove forests, which are important for the protection of the coastal environment and provide a refuge for many species of fish and birds. In many parts of the country, you will find vast steppe grasses, which are important grazing habitats for many species of animals.

 

Agriculture:

The main crops grown in Tanzania include cereals (maize, millet, rice, and wheat), coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, sugarcane, oilseeds (groundnuts, sunflower, and sesame), bananas, pineapples, and cassava. The country is one of the world’s main coffee producers, and Tanzanian coffee is known for its quality. Subsistence agriculture prevails in many parts of the country, meaning that people grow food for their own needs and for local markets.

 

Extraction of raw materials:

Tanzania is one of the largest gold producers in Africa. Gold mining takes place in different parts of the country, mostly in the Geita, Mwanza, and North Mara areas.

The country is also a major producer of diamonds. Diamond mines are located in areas such as Williamson, Mwadui, and Mabuki. It has reserves of various ores and metals, including copper, nickel, iron, coal, and Tanzania’s ore processing industry is significant.

Apart from diamonds, other precious stones such as tanzanite, rubies, and emeralds are also mined. In some areas, nickel, titanium, and other important minerals for industrial purposes are mined.

 

Industry:

The country is one of the world’s largest gold producers. Several products are manufactured in the industrial sector, including food, beverages, textiles and clothing, cement, construction materials, and electronics. The energy industry plays an important role in the country, with the production of electricity from hydroelectric, geothermal, and wind farms.

Population growth and urbanization have led to the development of the construction industry. Major cities including Dar es Salaam are undergoing extensive construction projects, including residential buildings, infrastructure, and commercial properties.

 

Services and other areas of the economy: tourism and transport

 

Natural and historical attractions: Ngorongoro and Kondoa areas, Selous Game Reserve, Serengeti National Park, Mount Kilimanjaro, the Zanzibar Archipelago, and Lake Victoria

Tanzania is home to several famous national parks and game reserves, including Serengeti National Park, Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tarangire National Park and Manyara Lake National Park. These are popular destinations for safaris and wildlife viewing.

Kilimanjaro, Africa’s highest peak, attracts thousands of climbers and tourists every year. People come to climb this peak or at least explore its surroundings.

Zanzibar, along with other Tanzanian islands off the east coast, is a popular destination for those seeking beaches, diving, historic cities, and rich Swahili culture. Tourists have the opportunity to visit traditional villages, meet local people, and learn about local culture and customs.

 

Waterparks in Tanzania:

 

Form of government: republic

The president is the head of state and government. Parliament, known as the Bunge, is unicameral.

The political scene is diverse with several political parties, but the ruling party has for a long time been Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM), which is a party that emerged from the liberation movement at the time of independence.

 

Capital city: Dodoma

Although Dodoma is the capital, economic, and commercial activity remains concentrated in Dar es Salaam on the Indian Ocean coast, which is Tanzania’s largest city and main commercial center. Before Dodoma became the country’s capital, it was an important place for agricultural trade. The relocation of the capital was a decision by the Tanzanian government in 1973 as part of efforts to develop the countryside and distribute power and infrastructure equally.

 

Area: 947 303 km2 (365 756 square miles)

 

Population: 63 900 000 (2022)

Tanzania is known for its ethnic diversity. The largest groups are the Sukuma, Chaga, Nyamwezi, Haya, and Zaramo. Each of these groups has its own language, culture, and traditions.

Christianity and Islam predominate in the country. Christianity is represented by various denominations, mainly the Catholic and the Anglican churches. Islam is the second largest religion in the country. Tanzania has compulsory primary schooling, but access to higher education is limited. There are two official languages in Tanzania – Swahili and English. More than 120 different local languages and dialects are spoken. Healthcare is a challenge for Tanzania. The government is working with international organizations to improve health infrastructure and the availability of medical services.

 

UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 7

 

  1. Ngorongoro (1979) – The place where the remains of the ancestor of today’s man, homo habilis, were found.
  2. Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Songo Mnara (1981) – These two island sites off the coast of Tanzania are historically important for their medieval Arab ruins, including forts and mosques.
  3. Serengeti (1981) – Serengeti National Park is famous for its migrating herds of game and abundant wildlife. It is one of the most important protected areas for safaris in Africa.
  4. Selous Reserve (1982) – This reserve is known for its diverse ecosystems and rich wildlife. It includes many species of mammals, birds, and plants.
  5. Kilimanjaro National Park (1987) – This park includes Africa’s highest mountain, Kilimanjaro, and is a popular destination for climbers and hikers.
  6. Zanzibar (2000) – The island of Zanzibar is known for its rich history and culture, including the historic Stone Town and beautiful beaches.
  7. Kondoa Rock Paintings (2006) – This site in Tanzania contains ancient rock paintings and is important for the study of ancient artistic expressions and life in this area.

 

National parks: 20

 

  1. Saadani National Park
  2. Tarangire National Park
  3. Serengeti National Park
  4. Ruaha National Park
  5. Mikumi National Park
  6. Lake Manyara National Park
  7. Katavi National Park
  8. Kilimanjaro National Park
  9. Saanane Islands National Park
  10. Burigi-Chato National Park
  11. Arusha National Park
  12. Gombe National Park
  13. Mahale Mountains National Park
  14. Kitulo National Park
  15. Rubondo Islands National Park
  16. Udzungwa National Park
  17. Mkomazi National Park
  18. Nyerere National Park
  19. Ibanda-Kyerwa National Park
  20. Rumanyika-Karagwe National Park