TOGO

Date of establishment: April 27, 1960

Brief history:

  • Pre-colonial period: The territory of present-day Togo was inhabited by various ethnic groups, including the Ewe, Mina and Kabye. The region was a center of trade and culture and had its own kingdoms and chieftains.
  • Colonization: In 1884, the area of present-day Togo was occupied by German colonists during the Berlin Conference, which divided Africa among the European powers. German Togoland was run as a German colony until the end of the First World War.
  • Anglo-French administration: After World War I, Togoland was divided between France and the United Kingdom under a League of Nations mandate administration.
  • Independence: On April 27, 1960, French Togoland gained independence and became an independent state under the name Republic of Togo. Sylvanus Olympio became the first president.
  • Political Instability: Togo has been marked by political unrest and changes of government since Olympio’s assassination in 1963. Gnassingbé Eyadéma took power in 1967 and ruled until his death in 2005.
  • 21st century: After Eyadéma’s death, his son Faure Gnassingbé was elected president. Togo has been marked by political instability and protests against the long-time rule of the Gnassingbé family. Reforms have been adopted, but the political situation remains complex.
  • Present: Togo is a state with non-independent institutions and still faces challenges in terms of democracy and human rights. They are trying to develop their economy and improve the living conditions of their residents.

 

International abbreviation: TG

 

Currency: West African CFA franc (XOF)

The West AfricanfFranc (XOF) is a common currency system for several West African countries. It is pegged to the euro (EUR) at a fixed exchange rate.

 

Internet domain: .tg

 

Dialing code: +228

 

Time zone: GMT 0

 

Geography:

Togo has a short Atlantic coast in the south of the country, which is known for its beaches and fishing villages. In the northern part there are several mountainous regions, including the Togo, Atakora, and Akwapim mountains. The central and northern parts of the country are characterized by dry areas, including savannah and desert. The area has an arid climate and is home to pastoralists and farmers. The state has several rivers, the most important of which are the Mono and Oti. It also has several lakes, such as Togokam, which lies on the border with Ghana.

 

Highest peak: Mont Agou 986 m (3 235 feet) above sea level.

The peak is located in the Togo Mountains, which are located in the north of the country. Mount Agou and the Togo Mountains are characterized by their mountainous landscape and are important to the country’s ecosystems and biodiversity.

 

Climate:

The Atlantic coast of southern Togo has a humid tropical climate with distinct seasons. The rainy season runs from April to October and is associated with high rainfall and hot temperatures. The dry season lasts from November to March, when less rainfall is expected.

The central and northern regions have a dry tropical to desert climate. Average temperatures are high, although they can drop at night. Rainfall is limited, and most of the rain falls during the rainy season from May to October. The dry season from November to April is longer there and can be very dry.

 

Fauna and flora:

In Togo, there are various species of mammals, including elephants, leopards, hyenas, wildebeest, and monkeys. Some species of monkeys such as guerezas and colobus are commonly seen in forests and national parks. The country is home to many species of birds, including parrots, eagles, pelicans, and petrels. Thanks to its coastline, it has abundant marine life. Fish such as tuna or sardines are an important part of the local fisheries and economy.

Togo has a variety of forest types, including tropical rainforests and coastal mangrove forests. The interior is mostly covered with savannah vegetation – grassy plains with scattered trees and shrubs. Coastal areas host mangroves, important to the coastal ecosystem and providing refuge for fish and birds.

 

Agriculture:

Agriculture in Togo produces a wide variety of crops, including maize, cassava, rice, peas, groundnuts, sweet potatoes, coffee, cocoa, cotton, and palm oil. Maize and cassava are staple foods. The country is known for its coffee and cocoa production, and they are important export crops.

Palm oil is a very important agricultural product and is used in local cuisine as well as for export. Palms are grown on plantations and also on smaller farms.

In some areas, pastoralism is an important livelihood. Cattle are raised for meat and milk, as well as for traditional ceremonies and rituals. Fish and seafood are an important part of the local population’s diet.

 

Extraction of raw materials:

Togo is known for its phosphate mining, providing an important industrial mineral. Phosphates are mainly used as a raw material for fertilizers and are an important export product.

Gold is also mined on a smaller scale. Togo’s gold is mostly found in small mining locations and is an important source of income for some communities.

The country has some potential for diamond mining, although this activity is often carried out illegally.

 

Industry:

Phosphate mining and its processing are key branches of industry and contribute to the export of fertilizers. The food industry is also an important sector. It includes processing flour, sugar, oil, and other food products. The country has a textiles industry that deals with the production of textiles and clothing. This includes weaving and sewing.

Construction and the production of building materials are also developing, which is linked to the growth of urban areas and infrastructure projects.

The wood industry includes the processing of wood and the production of wood products such as furniture and building materials.

 

Services and other areas of the economy: transport

 

Natural and historical attractions: the Batammariba area, the Alédjo Reserve, Fazao Malfakassa Park, and Lomé and Togoville cities

Togo has beautiful beaches on the Atlantic coast, especially around the capital Lomé. It has several protected areas, including Fazao-Malfakassa and Kéran national parks. These areas offer opportunities for wildlife and bird watching, as well as hiking and trekking.

Tourists can visit markets where local products are sold and also get to know the traditional inhabitants and their customs. Togo is home to historic sites such as traditional African villages and colonial-era monuments that offer a glimpse into the country’s past.

 

 

Form of government: presidential republic

The main body of executive power is the president, who is the head of state and government. He/she is elected in general elections for a five-year term and may be re-elected.

Legislative power is vested in a unicameral parliament, the National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale), which has 91 deputies elected for five-year terms. The government consists of the president and ministers who are appointed by the president.

There is an independent judicial system, including a constitutional court that oversees compliance with the constitution. Togo is divided into five administrative regions, which are further subdivided into prefectures and cantons. Regional and local self-government has powers within a decentralized system.

 

Capital city: Lomé

Lomé is located in the southwest of Togo, on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, near the border with Ghana, and is of strategic importance as the main port of Togo.

The city is an important economic hub in West Africa and is also known for its rich culture and history.

 

Area: 56 785 km2 (21 925 square miles)

 

Population: 8 500 000 (2022)

Togo has diverse ethnic groups, with the largest being the Ewe, followed by the Kabye and the Kotokoli. There are also smaller groups, including Mina, Tem, and others.

French is the official language and is used in government and educational institutions. Religion in Togo is diverse, although a syncretic faith combining Christianity and traditional African religions predominates. Traditional African religious practices and rituals are still an important part of culture and life in Togo.

 

UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 1

 

  1. Koutammakou (2004) – The Batammariba tribe lives in the area, and their remarkable mud tower houses have become a symbol of Togo.

 

National parks: 3

 

  1. Fazao-Malfakassa National Park
  2. Fosse aux Lions National Park
  3. Kéran National Park