ZAMBIA

Date of establishment: October 24, 1964

Brief history:

  • Pre-colonial period: Archaeological findings dating back to the Stone Age have been found in what is now Zambia.
  • Colonization: During the 19th century, the territory became part of the British Empire. The British controlled the region through the British South Africa Company.
  • 1924: The British South Africa Company handed over control of the territory of Northern Rhodesia (present-day Zambia) to the British colonial government.
  • 1953-1963: Northern Rhodesia was part of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (present-day Malawi, Zimbabwe and Zambia). This federation was dissolved in 1963.
  • 1964: On 24 October 1964, Northern Rhodesia gained independence from Great Britain and renamed itself the Republic of Zambia. Kenneth Kaunda became the first president.
  • 1970-1980: Zambia faced economic difficulties due to the decline in world market prices for copper, which was the country’s main export commodity.
  • 1991: In the first free elections, Kenneth Kaunda was defeated and Frederick Chiluba took over as president.
  • 21st century: Zambia has undergone political changes. The country’s economy still depends on the mining of copper and other minerals.

 

International abbreviation: ZM

 

Currency: Zambian kwacha (ZMK)

The kwacha is divided into smaller units called ngwee. The kwacha is a freely convertible currency and is used in the Zambian economy for all transactions.

 

Internet domain: .zm

 

Dialing code: +260

 

Time zone: GMT +2

 

Geography:

Zambia is located in the south of Africa and is surrounded by several countries: Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, and Angola.

It has a varied terrain. To the south and southwest is a flat and lowland region, while to the north and northeast are hilly regions and mountains, including the famous Muchinga mountain range.

The country is famous for its rivers and waterfalls. The most important river is the Zambezi, which forms the eastern border of the country and is home to the famous Victoria Falls. Other important rivers are the Luangwa, Kafue, and Kariba. The largest lake in Zambia is Lake Tanganyika, which lies on the border with Tanzania. Lake Kariba, on the Zambezi River, is an important artificial reservoir.

 

Highest peak: Mafinga Central 2 339 m (7 674 feet) above sea level.

The highest point in the Mafinga Mountains. This mountain is located in the eastern part of the country, close to the border with Malawi.

 

Climate:

The dry season is from May to October. Temperatures are usually high and precipitation is minimal. The rainy season lasts from November to April and temperatures are milder. The rainy season can be associated with occasional heavy rains and storms. During the rainy season, the land becomes greener, rivers and lakes increase in volume. In most areas, they range from 20°C (68°F) to 30°C (86°F) on average, but can be higher in lowlands and lower in mountainous areas.

The eastern region has the most rainfall. The western part can be dry and hot, with minimal rainfall.

 

Fauna and flora:

Zambia is home to many large African mammals, including elephants, lions, leopards, rhinoceroses, buffalo, and giraffes. National parks such as South Luangwa, Kafue and Lower Zambezi are popular places for wildlife viewing.

It is a paradise for ornithologists, with more than 700 species of birds, including brightly colored species such as the lily warbler or the African tern. The rivers and lakes are inhabited by crocodiles and hippopotamuses. You can see many of them while cruising the Zambezi and Kafue rivers.

Zambia has a variety of natural habitat types, from dry savannah and forests to wetlands. Grassy savannah is found in the lower elevations, while forests are found in the mountainous areas. It is also known for its baobab trees. These imposing trees have a distinctive shape and are often referred to as “trees of life” because of their importance to local communities.

Zambia’s national tree is the mopane (Colophospermum mopane). Local people use many plants for medicinal purposes. Zambia has a rich tradition in traditional medicine based on medicinal plants.

 

Agriculture:

Maize is the main crop and forms the staple food for many residents. Other important crops are peas, beans, cassava, potatoes, soybeans, and rice. In addition to crops for human consumption, cotton, tobacco, and sugar cane are also grown. Most farmers practice traditional forms of agriculture, small-scale cultivation and pastoralism.

The agricultural sector faces several challenges, including unpredictable weather and seasonal droughts or floods.

 

Extraction of raw materials:

Zambia is one of the world’s largest copper producers. Copper mining is a major industry and an engine for the country’s economy. The main mining areas are the Copperbelt and the North-Western provinces. In addition to copper, cobalt is also mined. It is an important metal for the production of batteries and other technological applications.

The country is also known for mining precious stones, especially emeralds. These are mined in Copperbelt Province. Gold is another raw material mined in the country. It is located in several regions, including the Eastern, Central, and Western provinces.

 

Industry:

Zambia has potential in the area of energy production, especially electricity. Hydroelectric power plants, such as Kariba on the Zambezi River, are an important source of electricity.

The food processing industry processes corn, sugar cane, tobacco, coffee, and more. Food production represents a significant part of the industrial sector.

A growing population and economic development support construction and infrastructure projects, including the construction of roads, bridges, hospitals, and schools.

 

Services and other areas of the economy: tourism and transport

 

Natural and historical attractions: Victoria Falls, Zambezi River, Mosi-oa-Tunya and South Luangwa national parks, Lake Tanganyika, and the cities of Lusaka and Livingstone

Zambia has several national parks and nature reserves that are home to diverse wildlife. These include, for example, South Luangwa, Kafue, Lower Zambezi and North Luangwa national parks. These offer the opportunity to see lions, elephants, leopards, rhinoceroses, crocodiles, and many other animals.

Victoria Falls, also known as “the smoke that thunders” is one of the most famous waterfalls in the world. It lies on the border of Zambia and Zimbabwe and attracts tourists with its stunning beauty and power. The country is an ideal place for a safari. Tourists can take off-road vehicle rides and observe wildlife in its natural habitat.

The Zambezi and Luangwa rivers offer river safari, fishing, rafting, canoeing, and other water activities. For mountain lovers, treks are available in the Muchinga range and other mountainous areas.

 

Waterparks in Zambia:

 

Form of government: presidential republic

The main element of the state structure is the presidential system, in which the head of state is the president, who is elected by general elections for a five-year term. The president has broad powers and is the highest executive in the country. Legislative power is vested in the unicameral National Assembly, which has 166 members, 156 of them elected. Memebers are elected in general elections, for a period also lasting five years. The judicial system is independent and comprises a number of courts including the Supreme Court, the court of appeal and other regional and local courts.

 

Capital city: Lusaka

Located in the central part of Zambia, it is strategically located near the border with Malawi, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. The British South Africa Company, which had influence in the region, chose this area for its interests. In 1911, Lusaka was chosen as the site for the capital of the British Protectorate of Northern Rhodesia.

 

Area: 752 617 km2 (290 587 square miles)

 

Population: 19 650 000 (2022)

Zambia is known for its ethnic diversity. The largest groups include the Bemba, Tonga, Lozi, Nyanja, Lunda, and Luvale. Each of these groups has its own language, culture, and traditions.

The country has many different languages, but English is the official language. Christianity is the dominant religious faith. In addition, there is also a Muslim minority and followers of traditional religion. The country faces health problems such as malaria, HIV/AIDS, and the population suffers from insufficient access to health care and education.

 

UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 1

 

1. Victoria Falls (1989) – Victoria Falls on the border of Zambia and Zimbabwe is one of the most beautiful waterfalls in the world.

 

National parks: 20

 

  1. Kafue National Park
  2. Kasanka National Park
  3. Lochinvar National Park
  4. Lower Zambezi National Park
  5. Liuwa Plain National Park
  6. Mosi-oa-Tunya National Park
  7. North Luangwa National Park
  8. Nsumbu National Park
  9. Sioma Ngwezi National Park
  10. South Luangwa National Park
  11. Blue Lagoon National Park
  12. Isangano National Park
  13. Lavushi Manda National Park
  14. Luambe National Park
  15. Lukusuzi National Park
  16. Lusaka National Park
  17. Lusenga Plains National Park
  18. Mweru Wantipa National Park
  19. Nyika National Park
  20. West Lunga National Park