Date of establishment: August 15, 1971

Brief history:

  • Ancient History: Bahrain has a long history of settlement and has been known for trade and fishing since ancient times. It was influenced by various cultures, including Persian, Babylonian, and Greek.
  • Islam and the rule of the Al Khalifa dynasty: In the 18th century, the Al Khalifa dynasty came from the Arabian Peninsula and began to rule Bahrain. This dynasty is still in power.
  • British Protection: In the 19th century, Bahrain became a British protectorate, which meant a British military presence and protection.
  • Independence: In 1971, Bahrain gained independence from the United Kingdom and became the Kingdom of Bahrain. The date of declaration of independence is August 15, 1971.
  • Political and Social Changes: Bahrain witnessed political and social changes throughout the 20th century. Protests and revolutions took place in connection with demands for greater democracy and human rights.
  • Current Situation: Bahrain is currently a constitutional monarchy with King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa as head of state. The country remains a major player in regional politics and economics.


International abbreviation: BRN


Currency: Bahraini dinar (BHD)

The Bahraini dinar is divided into 1 000 smaller units called fils. In Bahrain, you will find notes and coins in different denominations of dinars, with the notes having different designs and colors depending on the value. The Bahraini dinar is a strong currency and is commonly used for business and financial transactions in the country.


Internet domain: .bh


Dialing code: +973


Time zone: GMT +3



Bahrain consists of several islands, the main and largest of which are Bahrain Island (Al-Bahrayn), Muharraq, Umm an-Nasan, and other smaller islands and coral reefs. The main island is connected to Muharraq by a bridge.

The land is largely low and flat. Most of the island is a very shallow bay and sandy beaches. The island of Bahrain is famous for its sand dunes, which are a characteristic feature of the landscape.

It lies on the shores of the Persian Gulf, which is of strategic importance to the region and for international trade.



Highest peak: Jabal ad-Dukhan 122 meters (400 feet) above sea level.

Known for its low and flat landscape, Bahrain has no prominent mountains or highest peak. The highest point is only the gentle ridges and sand dunes of Bahrain Island, which are located at an altitude of around 100 meters (328 feet) above sea level.

This area is known as Jabal ad Dukhan, which means “House of the Mountain,” but compared to the heights of the peaks in other parts of the world, these hills are very low.



The summer months are extremely hot and dry, with temperatures often exceeding 40°C (104°F), and they can reach even higher. Daytime temperatures in summer can be uncomfortably high.

In winter, temperatures moderate and become pleasant. Average winter temperatures range from 15°C (59°F) at night to 24°C (75°F) during the day.

The country has very limited rainfall, especially during the hot summer. The annual rainfall total is low and most of the rain falls in the winter season. Rain is rare and Bahrain has problems with a lack of fresh water.

In summer, the humidity is high, which can cause unpleasant sensations of heat.

It can experience strong winds, especially during winter, which can cause dust storms.


Fauna and flora:

Bahrain is known for its date palms, which are of economic importance in the country. Dates are an important product and part of traditional Bahraini cuisine.

Most of the land is covered with desert vegetation, including dry shrubs and grasses.

In some coastal areas you can find mangroves. These plants grow in shallow waters and serve as an important part of the ecosystem.

There are find desert species of animals such as chamois, lizards, snakes and small rodents.

The country is an important stopover for migrating birds, making it an attractive spot for birdwatching. A variety of bird species can be seen in the Persian Gulf and Bahraini wetlands, including pelicans, terns and cormorants.

Due to its location on the Persian Gulf, Bahrain has a rich marine life. A variety of fish, coral and other marine life can be found in the surrounding waters, which is important for fisheries and food security.



Date palms are one of the most important crops. Dates are grown on Bahrain Island and are of economic importance to the country. Bahrain is known for producing various types of dates, including Medjool, which is considered a luxury variety.

Farmers are dependent on irrigation systems as rain is scarce. Modern irrigation technologies are used to supply water to plants, including drip irrigation and the use of desalinated seawater.

Cattle raising is another aspect of agriculture, especially on Muharraq Island.

Traditional agriculture includes the cultivation of pulses, vegetables, and some fruit trees. These crops are often grown on small family farms.


Extraction of raw materials:

Oil extraction is one of the main industries. It has limited oil reserves compared to some other countries in the Persian Gulf, but oil production and refining oil are a significant source of income for the country. Natural gas is another important raw material.

The country has one of the largest aluminum industries in the region, mining bauxite ore and processing it into aluminum.

Silicon mining and quartz sand production are also important industries. Silicon is used in a variety of industries, including glass and electronics.

It has reserves of tar sands that are used in the asphalt industry.



The country has a significant petrochemicals industry, which includes the production of chemicals, plastics, fertilizers, and other products based on oil and natural gas.

It is home to one of the largest aluminum industries in the region. Mining bauxite and processing it into aluminum are the key activities.

Construction and development have a significant role. The country is investing in infrastructure, business, and housing projects, both on Bahrain Island and other islands.

They are trying to develop the pharmaceuticals industry and produce drugs and medicines for both domestic consumption and export.

The food industry includes the production of food, beverages, and other food products.


Services and other sectors of the economy: underdeveloped


Natural and historical attractions: Manama, historical forts, the tree of life, and Muharraq

Bahrain has a rich history and cultural heritage. Visitors can visit historical monuments such as the Bahrain Fort (Qal’at al-Bahrain), the old city of Muharraq, and various museums that showcase the country’s rich history and traditions. Bahrain has beautiful beaches on the coast of the Persian Gulf.

It hosts various sporting events, including Formula 1 at the Bahrain International Circuit. There are a wide range of luxury hotels that attract tourists looking for comfort and convenience.

It has modern malls and markets where visitors can shop for fashion, electronics, jewelry and other goods.

Despite its dry climate, it has some natural beauties such as oases, nature reserves and mangroves.


Waterparks in Bahrain:


Form of government: absolute monarchy

The leader of the country is the King of the Kingdom of Bahrain, who holds executive power.

The government of Bahrain is headed by the Prime Minister, who is appointed by the King and is in charge of running the government and directing state policy. The government also includes several ministerial portfolios that are responsible for different areas, including finance, foreign affairs, and industry.

There is a bicameral parliament. The lower house, known as the House of Representatives, is composed of elected representatives of the citizens of Bahrain. The upper house, known as the Shura Council, is composed of members appointed by the king.


Capital city: Manama

The city of Manama has a history dating back thousands of years. It was inhabited by ancient civilizations, including the Sumerians and Babylonians.

Today, Manama is a modern city with tall skyscrapers, luxury hotels, shopping centers, and modern infrastructure.


Area: 665 km2 (257 square miles)


Population: 1 470 000 (2022)

The main ethnic groups are Bahrainis (original inhabitants of Bahrain), Arabs, and expatriate workers from various countries including India, Pakistan, Philippines, Bangladesh, and many others.

The religious groups are Muslims and smaller communities of Christians, Hindus, and others.

The official language is Arabic. Arabic is used in public administration, education, the media, and public communication.

Bahrain has a high level of healthcare with modern hospitals and clinics.

Bahraini cuisine is tasty and varied. Traditional Bahraini dishes include machbous (a traditional fish or meat mixture with rice) and harees (wheat and meat porridge).


UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 3

  1. Qal’at al-Bahrain (2005) – An artificial mound created by multiple cultural layers, documenting settlement from 2300 BCE.
  2. Pearl Fishing, a Testimony of the Island Economy (2012) – a fort, mosque, warehouses, shops, and merchant houses that witness the sophistication of pearl fishing and trade.
  3. Dilmun Burial Mounds (2019) – A field of ancient burial mounds that make up almost 5 percent of Bahrain’s surface.


National parks: