JORDAN

Date of establishment: May 25, 1946

Brief history:

  • Antiquity: The territory of today’s Jordan was already inhabited in ancient times. It was part of ancient empires, including the Nabatean Empire, which controlled the famous rock city of Petra.
  • Ottoman Empire: In the 16th century, Jordan fell under the Ottoman Empire and remained that way until the end of the First World War.
  • World War I: After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, the territory of Jordan was part of the British Mandate of Palestine and Transjordan, which was established under British administration.
  • Independence of Jordan: On May 25, 1946, Jordan was recognized as an independent kingdom with King Abdullah I on the throne.
  • Arab-Israeli Wars: Jordan played an important role in the First Arab-Israeli War in 1948 and other conflicts in the region.
  • Reforms of King Hussein: In the 1950s and 1960s, King Hussein I carried out important reforms and modernization of the country.
  • Six-Day War: In 1967, Jordan participated in the Six-Day War against Israel and lost control of the West Bank.
  • Peace Agreements: In later years, Jordan concluded peace agreements with Israel and became an important partner in the process of a peaceful resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
  • 21st century: Jordan became a refugee home for a large number of Palestinian and Syrian refugees. The country also faced economic challenges and political changes in the region.

International abbreviation: JOR

 

Currency: Jordanian dinar (JOD)

The Jordanian dinar is divided into 10 dirhams, 100 qirshes, and 1000 fil.

It is a stable currency and has a fixed exchange rate.

 

Internet domain: .jo

 

Telephone code: +962

 

Time zone: GMT +3

 

Geography:

Most of the country is covered by desert. The country has part of the Rub al-Khali (Empty Quarter) desert in the south, which is one of the largest deserts in the world. Another desert area is the Wadi Rum in the south of the country.

It has several mountainous areas. In the west of the country is the Jabal Ajloun mountain massif, which is part of the Levantine Mountains.

It is the junction of several important rivers, including the Jordan, which forms the country’s eastern border and empties into the Dead Sea.

It has no access to the sea. Its nearest ports are located in Israel and Syria.

Jordan is full of wadis, which are dry river valleys that can suddenly fill with water after heavy rains. Wadi are a characteristic feature of Jordan’s landscape and are ecologically important for the preservation of biodiversity.

 

Highest peak: Jabal umm Ad-Dami 1854 m (6083 feet) above see level.

The mountain is located in the southeastern part of the country, near the border with Saudi Arabia.

Jabal umm Ad-Dami is part of the Jabal al-Hashem mountain massif, which is in the Wadi Rum region.

 

Climate:

Most of Jordan has a desert climate with hot summers and mild winters. In summer, temperatures can reach up to 40°C (104°F) and more in some places, while in winter they drop to more acceptable levels. Rainfall is minimal and most of the country has little vegetation.

In mountainous areas, such as the Jabal Ajloun massif in the west of the country, the climate is cooler and wetter. Temperatures are milder in summer and drop below freezing in winter. This area has more rainfall than the desert parts of Jordan and has richer vegetation.

It does not have its own coast, but near the border with Israel lies the Dead Sea. The climate in this area is hot and dry, with high summer temperatures.

Wadis are dry river valleys that can be flooded during the rainy season. In these areas, the climate can be extremely hot and dry, but there are occasional heavy rains and floods.

 

Fauna and flora:

The Arabian oryx is an endangered species of antelope that has been successfully reintroduced to some protected areas in Jordan.

The Arabian leopard is an endangered species of leopard that lives in mountainous areas, but its population is very small.

Camels are the traditional animals of the desert Bedouin in Jordan and play an important role in the culture and history there.

The Arabian gazelle is a small antelope that inhabits desert areas and is one of the characteristic species of fauna in the arid parts of Jordan.

It is an important natural habitat for birds during their migratory journeys between Africa, Europe, and Asia. Jordanian areas such as the Dana Nature Reserve are major birdwatching sites.

Acacia trees are often found in the dry desert areas of Jordan and are resistant to extreme conditions. Tamarisk is another type of plant that grows in dry areas, especially near the coast of the Dead Sea. In mountainous areas, such as the Jabal Ajloun massif, different types of shrubs and grasses can be found, contributing to a richer vegetation.

 

Agriculture:

A variety of crops are grown in Jordan, including cereals (wheat, barley, and maize), fruits (olives, figs, grapes, and pomegranates), vegetables, and legumes. The cultivation of olive trees is particularly important. The country is one of the world’s main producers of olive oil.

Livestock farming, including cattle, goats, and sheep, is an important element of Jordanian agriculture. Jordan faces water constraints, which is why irrigation is an essential element of the agricultural sector. Modern irrigation systems, including drip irrigation, are used to efficiently utilize limited water resources.

It has serious problems with water. Water is a scarce resource, and the country faces problems with groundwater pumping and the long-term lowering of the Dead Sea.

It exports some agricultural products, such as olive oil, abroad, contributing to the country’s economy.

In some parts, traditional methods of farming are still used, such as growing crops on terraces and grazing cattle in the open.

 

Extraction of raw materials:

Jordan is one of the world’s major producers of phosphates. Phosphate mining is an important industry in the country.

Different types of clay are extracted in the country, and are used in the ceramic industry and in the production of bricks.

Salt and other minerals are produced in the Dead Sea area. The Dead Sea is known for its high concentration of salt and minerals.

Limestone is used in construction and lime production. It has reserves of quartz, which is used in industrial processes and in the production of glass.

 

Industry:

The food industry is one of the most important in Jordan. The country produces food such as dairy products, flour, sugar, oils, and other food products for both domestic consumption and export. It has a developed farming industry that includes poultry, livestock, and fruit and vegetable production.

The textiles and clothing industries are also among the important industries in Jordan. The country produces textile products and clothing for export.

Jordanian industry includes the production of various products such as cement, ceramics, glass, chemicals, and plastic products.

The country is one of the world’s major producers of phosphates, an important raw material industry for the country.

Tourism also plays an important role in the Jordanian economy. The country has a rich cultural and historical heritage and is home to famous monuments such as Petra and Wadi Rum, attracting tourists from all over the world.

 

Services and other sectors of the economy: tourism

 

Natural and historical attractions: Petra, Amman, Dead Sea, Dana Nature Reserve, Madaba, Kerak, and Shobak

Jordan is home to several important historical and archaeological sites. Petra, also known as “The City Hewn in the Rock,” is one of the most famous and iconic attractions in the world. Other important monuments are Jerash, Amman Roman Theater, Karak Castle, and many others.

It offers beautiful natural scenery, especially in the Wadi Rum area, a desert reserve known for its rock formations and red dunes. The Dead Sea, the lowest point on Earth, is also a popular place for tourists due to its mineral waters and swimming in extremely salty water.

It is known for its hospitality and rich culture. Tourists can explore traditional towns and villages where ancient customs and crafts have been preserved.

There are various recreational activities for tourists, including mountain climbing, hiking, diving in the Red Sea, and other outdoor activities.

Tourists have the option of going on a desert safari in the Wadi Rum area, which includes camel riding and visiting Bedouin camps.

 

Waterparks in Jordan:

 

Form of government: constitutional monarchy

According to the Jordanian constitution, Jordan is a parliamentary monarchy, meaning it has a king as head of state and a parliamentary system of government. The King of Jordan has powers, but they are limited by the constitution and the law. The king appoints the prime minister and members of the government and has influence over some key decision-making processes.

Parliament is bicameral and consists of the Lower House (House of Deputies) and the Upper House (Senate).

The King of Jordan plays an important role in the country and is respected as a symbol of unity and stability. Jordan is also known for its royal family of the Hashemite dynasty, which has a long history in the region.

 

Capital city: Amman

It is located in the north of the country and lies in a mountainous area near the Jordanian-Israeli border.

Amman has a rich history that dates back thousands of years. It was known as Rabbath-Ammon in biblical times and later as Philadelphia when it was part of the Roman Empire.

 

Area: 89 342 km2 (34 495 square miles)

 

Population: 11 100 000 (2022)

The majority of the population is of Arab origin. There are also minorities of Kurds, Turks, Circassians, and other ethnic groups in the country.

Regarding religion, the majority of the population are Jordanian Muslims, mainly Sunnis, but there is also a smaller community of Christians and other religious minorities living in the country.

Arabic is the official language, but English is widely used, especially in business and tourism settings.

Jordan is known for hosting large numbers of refugees from surrounding conflict areas, including Palestinian and Syrian refugees.

 

UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 6

 

  1. Petra (1985) – A historic city in Jordan known for its rock formations and archaeological wealth.
  2. Kusejr Amra (1985) – One of the Umayyad forts in the desert in Jordan and famous for its frescoes.
  3. Um er-Rasas (2004) – An archaeological site in Jordan with mosaics and historical monuments.
  4. Wadi Rum Protected Area (2011) – Wadi Rum is a desert valley in Jordan and a protected area of beautiful scenery and possibilities for adventure.
  5. Bethany in Transjordan (2015) – Located by the Jordan River, it is believed to be the place of the baptism of Jesus Christ.
  6. Al-Salt (2021) – The city of Al-Salt in Jordan seeks to promote tolerance and hospitality.

 

National parks: 2

 

  1. Amman National Park
  2. Zayy National Park