Date of establishment: July 11, 1921

Brief history:

  • 1206: Official establishment of the Mongol Empire under the rule of Genghis Khan.
  • 14th century: The Mongol Empire became the largest conquering empire in history, spanning from East Asia to Europe.
  • 17th century: After the death of Genghis Khan’s successors, Mongolia disintegrated into several Central Asian khanates.
  • 17th century: The emergence of the Dzungar Khanate and the Ming Khanate.
  • 19th century: Mongolia was under Chinese rule and was called Outer Mongolia.
  • 1911: Declaration of independence of Outer Mongolia from the Chinese Empire.
  • 1921: Soviet invasion of Outer Mongolia; founding of the Mongolian People’s Republic.
  • 1939: Battle of Khalkhyn Gol between Mongolia and Japan.
  • 1945: Mongolia received international recognition at the Yalta and Potsdam conferences.
  • 1992: Transition to democracy and a market economy; official name change to Mongolia.


International abbreviation: MGL


Currency: Mongolian tugrik (MNT)

The tugrik is divided into smaller units called möngö. The Central Bank of Mongolia is responsible for issuing and regulating this currency.


Internet domain: mn


Dialing code: +976


Time zone: GMT +7 and +8



Mongolia lies east of Central Asia and is landlocked. It borders Russia to the north and China to the south, east and west.

It has a diverse terrain that includes mountains, deserts, and steppes. In the south and west of the country are the Altai Mountains and the Three Peaks Mountains, which include Mongolia’s highest peaks.

The Gobi is a famous desert located in the south. It is one of the largest cold deserts in the world and is characterized by rocky terrain, dunes, and extreme temperature fluctuations.

Much of it is covered by steppe landscapes, which are vast grassy plains that are home to nomadic pastoralists and their herds.

Mongolia has several rivers, the largest of which is the Seleng, which flows south from Russia into Lake Baikal. The country also has several salt lakes, including Uvs.


Highest peak: Khüiten Peak 4 374 m (14 350 feet) above see level.

It is located in the Altai Mountains in the west of the country and is part of the border between Mongolia, Russia, and China.

Khüiten is the highest point in Mongolia and is one of the most important peaks of the Altai Mountains.



Winters in Mongolia are long, cold, and dry. Temperatures can drop below -40°C (-40°F), especially in the countryside. Snow covers much of the country.

Summers are hot and dry, with temperatures that can exceed 30°C (86°F). In summer, rainfall is limited, which can lead to drought.

The country is known for its extreme temperature differences between day and night, as well as between summer and winter months.

The southern part, including the Gobi Desert, has a desert climate. This means that it is dry and has a large difference between day and night temperatures.

In the Altai Mountains in the west of the country, the climate is more alpine with cool summers and snow for most of the year.

It is exposed to windy weather, especially in the winter months when strong winds and snowstorms can occur.


Fauna and flora:

The Mongolian steppes are home to a variety of mammal species, including gazelles, ibex, chamois, protozoa, reindeer and wild Przewalski’s horses.

The coastal areas of the Gobi Desert and the lake are home to many species of waterfowl such as flamingos, ducks, and gulls.

The steppe and mountains are home to birds of prey, including steppe eagles, falcons, and bald eagles.

Mongolia is also famous for its wolves which inhabit the steppes and deserts. In the north, near the border with Russia, you can find a herd of European bison.

The steppes are covered with various types of dry steppe vegetation such as grasses, shrubs, and flowers adapted to the lack of moisture.

In the Gobi desert, you can find plants that are resistant to drought, such as thorn bushes and succulent species.

In the Altai Mountains, you will find alpine vegetation, including mountain meadows, and forests. Trees such as Siberian larch and willow grow in some areas of the steppes.



The main crops are cereals such as barley, wheat, millet, and oats.

Herding and cattle breeding play a key role in Mongolian agriculture. Mongolian nomads raise goats, sheep, cattle, and horses, which are essential for the production of meat, milk, wool, and leather. Cattle are also an important source for traditional Mongolian cuisine.

Most Mongolian pastoralists practice a traditional nomadic way of life, moving with their cattle to different pastures during different seasons.

The country faces recurring dry conditions and extreme climates, which can have a negative impact on crops and livestock.


Extraction of raw materials:

Mongolia is one of the world’s largest exporters of coal, mainly lignite, which is located in the southern part of the country, including the Gobi Desert.

It has significant copper reserves in rock formations in the south of the country. Gold is mined in various parts, including the Altai Mountains in the west.

There are significant reserves of lead and zinc, which are mined mainly in the southern regions. The country is one of the world’s largest producers of fluorite, which is used in industry and the chemicals industry. The metals molybdenum and tungsten are also mined and have various industrial applications. The country has some potential in oil and gas deposits.



Mining of coal, copper, gold, and other ores plays a significant role in Mongolian industry. Mongolia is known for its rich natural resources, and the extraction of raw materials brings important revenues to the state budget.

Food production, especially dairy products, is an important branch of industry. Traditional Mongolian cuisine includes dairy products, so milk and meat processing is key to the food industry.

Increasing urbanization is leading to the development of the construction industry, especially in large cities such as Ulaanbaatar. The construction of new apartment buildings, shopping centers, and infrastructure is an important industry.

It has limited forest resources, but a woodworking industry exists, producing furniture, building materials, and other wood products.


Services and other sectors of the economy: –


Natural and historical attractions: The Orkhon Valley, Burchan Chaldun Mountain, Uvs Nuur Basin, and the Gobi Desert

Mongolia is known for its unspoiled and diverse landscape. Visitors can explore the Gobi Desert, the Altai Mountains, steppes, and lakes.

The country is one of the few in the world where you can experience the traditional nomadic way of life. Tourists can sleep in yurts, watch the migration of herders with herds of cattle, and participate in traditional Mongolian activities.

The culture is rich and fascinating. Visitors can watch traditional festivals like Naadam, which includes horse racing, archery, and wrestling. Music, dance, and art are also an important part of the culture. Archaeological and historical monuments associated with the history of Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire. The Karakorum archaeological site, the former capital of the empire, is an attractive place for history-minded tourists.


Waterparks in Mongolia:


Form of government: parliamentary republic

The main body of state power in Mongolia is the State Great Khural, which is a unicameral parliament. The Khural consists of 76 deputies who are elected for five-year terms. Parliament has the power to pass laws, approve the national budget, and supervise the executive branch.

Executive power is exercised by the president, who is elected for a four-year term through direct election. The president has the power to appoint the prime minister and lead the country’s foreign policy. The government consists of the cabinet of ministers, whose members are appointed by the prime minister.


Capital city: Ulaanbaatar

It is located in central Mongolia, on the Tuul River, in a valley between the Bogd Khan Mountains in the south and the Khentii Mountains in the north. The city lies approximately 1 350 meters (4 429 feet) above sea level and has a harsh continental climate with cold winters and hot summers.


Area: 1 564 116 km2 (603 909 square miles)


Population: 3 230 000 (2022)

The country has a low population density, with most of the population living in a narrow strip in the south of the country. Most of the country remains sparsely populated.

The main ethnic group is the Mongolians who make up the majority of the population. In addition to them, smaller ethnic groups such as Kazakhs, Russians, Dungan, Buryats and others live in the country. The official language is Mongolian, which has a Cyrillic and a traditional script. Other languages such as Kazakh or Russian are also spoken in some regions.

The traditional religion is Tibetan Buddhism, which has deep roots in Mongolian culture. In addition, Islam, especially among the Kazakh population, and various forms of shamanism are also found in the country.


UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 6


  1. Uvs Nuur Basin (2003) – A natural area in Mongolia that includes Lake Uvs and the surrounding steppe and desert landscapes.
  2. Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape (2004) – The Orkhon Valley is a historical and cultural region in Mongolia, known for its archaeological remains and petroglyphs. The tomb of the Uighur Khan is also located here.
  3. Petroglyph Complex in the Mongolian Altai (2011) – Located in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia, this petroglyph complex contains magnificent stone carvings and drawings that are thousands of years old and show the cultural and religious history of the area.
  4. Burkhan Khaldun Mountain and the Surrounding Sacred Landscape (2015) – A sacred mountain in Mongolia that holds great significance in Mongolian mythology and history. This location also includes the surrounding landscape and is a place of importance for religious rituals.
  5. Dauria Landscapes (2017) – Vast grasslands and steppes in China and Mongolia that are home to traditional pastoralism and preserve the traditional way of life of local communities.
  6. Deer Stone Monuments and Related Bronze Age Sites (2023) – Located in Mongolia, this site contains Bronze Age archaeological remains and stone monuments, including deer stones and other archaeological finds, which provide important information about the history and culture of the area.


National parks: 29


  1. Altai Tavan Bogd National Park
  2. Gobi Gurvansaikhan National Park
  3. Gorkhi-Terelj National Park
  4. Khustain Nuruu National Park
  5. Lake Khövsgöl National Park
  6. Khyargas Nuur National Park
  7. Tarvagatai Nuruu National Park
  8. Tsambagarav National Park Uul
  9. Bulgan Gol-Ikh Ongog National Park
  10. Chigertein Golin Ai Sav National Park
  11. Dariganga National Park
  12. Har Us Nuur National Park
  13. Ikh Bogd Uul National Park
  14. Khangai Nuruu National Park
  15. Khan-Khokhi Khyargas Mountain National Park
  16. Khorgo-Terkhiin Tsagaan Nuur National Park
  17. Mongol Els National Park
  18. Munkhkhairkhan National Park
  19. Myangan-Ugalzat National Park
  20. Noyon Khangai National Park
  21. Onon-Balj National Park
  22. Orkhon Valley National Park
  23. Siilxem Nuruu National Park
  24. Tengis-Shishged National Park
  25. Tujiin Nars National Park
  26. Ulaagchini Khar Nuur National Park
  27. Undurkhaan Uul National Park
  28. Khugnu-Tarna National Park
  29. Zag Baidragiin Goliin Ekhen Sav National Park