Date of establishment: December 21, 1768

Brief history:

  • First Kingdom: In 1768, King Prithvi Narayan Shah united various small kingdoms and founded the Kingdom of Gorkha, later known as the Kingdom of Nepal.
  • 19th century: Nepal clashed with the British East India Company in three Anglo-Nepalese wars. As a result of these conflicts, the Treaty of Sugauli was concluded in 1815, which limited the territory of Nepal and allowed the British to control part of the territory.
  • During the British Colonial Era: Nepal was a de facto independent state but under the influence of British India. Agreements were established that limited Nepal’s foreign policy.
  • 20th Century: Nepal went through several political changes. In 1951, the Rana’s rule ended and a constitutional monarchy was restored. Political unrest broke out in the 1960s, and in 1996 the Maoist insurgency began.
  • 21st century: In 2008, after decades of conflict, a republic was established and the monarchy was abolished. A period of political instability followed, including the adoption of a new constitution in 2015.
  • 2015 Earthquake: In April 2015, an earthquake struck Nepal with disastrous effects on the country and its infrastructure.


International abbreviation: NP


Currency: Nepalese rupee (NPR)

One Nepalese rupee is divided into 100 paisa. Banknotes in various denominations are commonly used in Nepal, including 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1 000 rupees. Some coins also exist, but they are not as commonly used as banknotes.


Internet domain: .eg


Telephone code: +977


Time zone: GMT + 5:45



Nepal is home to some of the tallest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, which is the tallest mountain on Earth. The Himalayas stretch across the north of Nepal and form a natural border with Tibet (China). Apart from Mount Everest, the Himalayas include several other prominent peaks such as Lhotse, Makalu, and Annapurna.

In the south of the country lies the Terai Plain, which is a fertile and agriculturally productive area.

Various rivers flow through Nepal that have their origin in the Himalayas. Among the most important rivers are the Kosi, Gandaki, and Karnali.

It has several beautiful lakes, the most famous of which is Fewa, which lies near the city of Pokhara. Another important lake is Rara in the Mugu region.


Highest peak: Mt. Everest 8 849 m (29 032 feet) above see level.

Mount Everest is also the highest mountain in the world. This impressive peak is located in the Himalayas in northern Nepal near the border with Tibet (China).

It is a popular destination for climbers from all over the world who are trying to scale the peak and reach the top of the world.

The first successful ascent of Mount Everest was a historic expedition in 1953, led by Sir Edmund Hillary from New Zealand and Tenzing Norgay, a Sherpa from Nepal.



The Terai Plain, which lies in the south, has a tropical climate with a marked difference between the dry and rainy seasons. Monsoon rains in summer (July and August) are the key source of rainfall in this area.

The central region, which includes many climbing destinations, has a mild and humid climate. Winter tends to be cold and dry, while summer is hotter and wetter. Precipitation is evenly distributed throughout the year.

The Himalayan mountain range in the north has an alpine climate with extremely cold temperatures in winter and mild temperatures in summer. Snow and ice are found at higher elevations throughout the year. Monsoon rains hit this area in summer.


Fauna and flora:

Nepal is home to many species of mammals, including the Bengal tiger, Indian rhinoceros, leopard, snow leopard, elephant, Indian bear, dormouse, macaques, gazelles, and more.

The country is home to many species of birds, including eagles, condors, ravens, woodpeckers, owls, toucans, passerines, and rare species such as the tube-nosed petrel.

Several species of freshwater fish like mahseer, trout, and carp are found in the rivers and lakes. Reptiles found there include crocodiles, snakes, monitor lizards, and geckos.

Various species of amphibians, including toads and treehoppers, can be found in the Himalayan regions.

Various forest types are found in Nepal, including tropical rainforests in the Terai Plain, subtropical and temperate forests in the lower mountainous regions, and alpine forests in the Himalayas. The Himalayan region is known for its rich flora, including many endemic species. Rhododendrons are very common in this area and can create beautiful carpets of flowers during the spring. Many medicinal plants and herbs are cultivated and used in traditional Nepalese medicine and Ayurveda.

It is known for its rich collection of orchids, some of which are endemic and rare.



The main crops grown are rice, wheat, maize, barley, pulses, potatoes, tea, tobacco, sugarcane, and oilseeds. Rice is a staple food and a major part of the country’s diet.

Due to the mountainous terrain, most of the agricultural land is terraced. This traditional method of farming allows for more efficient use of the available land in the higher Himalayan regions.

Irrigation is a key factor for successful agriculture in the country. The country has a number of rivers and lakes that serve as sources of water for agricultural purposes. Water from Himalayan rivers is essential for field irrigation and agricultural production.


Extraction of raw materials:

Nepal has significant reserves of quartzite, which is used for the production of glass, ceramics, and electronics. Granite and limestone are often quarried and used for construction purposes such as buildings, bridges, and roads. Sulfur is mined in some areas of the country and used in various industrial processes.

Although it has some reserves of ores such as iron and copper, mining of these raw materials is limited and has not been developed on a large scale.

Gems such as sapphires, rubies, and emeralds are found in some Himalayan regions, but the mining and trading of gems is regulated and subject to laws.



The food industry is an important sector. It includes food processing, beverage production, and other food products. For example, rice products, sugar, flour, oils, and spices are produced there.

The textiles industry is another important sector that includes the production of clothing, textile material, and wood and bamboo products.

The construction industry includes the construction of buildings, roads, bridges, and other infrastructure. In Nepal, the construction industry has been developing in recent years, especially as part of the recovery from the 2015 earthquake.

Due to the abundance of forests in the country, the wood processing industry is also a significant sector, and includes the production of furniture, wooden structures, and paper.


Services and other sectors of the economy: tourism


Natural and historical attractions: Sagarmatha and Chitwan National Parks, the Kathmandu Valley, Lumbini, and Swayambhu

One of the main reasons why tourists come to Nepal is the trekking and mountain climbing opportunities. The country offers several famous trekking routes, including Everest Base Camp, the Annapurna Circuit, and Langtang Valley. Climbers come to conquer the world’s highest mountain, Mount Everest, and other Himalayan peaks.

It has a number of national parks and protected areas that serve to protect its unique biodiversity and natural beauty. Chitwan and Bardiya National Parks are known for their wildlife, including Bengal tigers and rhinos. The country is also an important center of Buddhism and Hinduism. Tourists often visit holy places such as Lumbini (the birthplace of Buddha) and Pashupatinath (a Hindu temple).


Waterparks in Nepal:


Form of government: federal republic

After centuries of monarchy and then a civil war that ended in 2006, it became a republic in 2008. The country is now divided into seven provinces – part of a decentralized system of government. The main element of the political system is multi-party democracy. The country has a presidential system where the president is the head of state while the prime minister is the head of government. The government is responsible to the Parliament, which is bicameral, with the Pratinidhi Sabha (Lower House) and the Rastriya Sabha (Upper House).


Capital city: Kathmandu

Located in the Kathmandu Valley in the central part of the country, it serves as the country’s political, cultural, and economic center.

The valley in which Kathmandu lies has been inhabited since prehistoric times. The first known state on the territory of present-day Nepal was the Kirat Kingdom, which existed thousands of years ago.


Area: 147 181 km2 (56 827 square miles)


Population: 30 670 000 (2022)

Nepal has an ethnically diverse population with different tribes and cultures. Kachhawa (Brahmin and Chhetri) – They are mostly Hindus. Newar – they are the original inhabitants of the Kathmandu Valley and have their own culture and language which is Newari. They are known for their traditional customs and architecture. The Madhesh, Tharu, and Gurkha are known for their military tradition and fighting skills.

Various languages and dialects are spoken in the country. The official language is Nepali, which is understood by the majority of the population. However, many ethnic groups have their own languages. For example, the Newari language is widespread in the Kathmandu Valley, while Maithili, Bhojpuri, and other languages are spoken in the Terai Plain in the south.

It is known for its religious diversity. Hinduism is the most common religion, and you will find many Hindu temples and holy places in Nepal. Buddhism also has a strong presence, especially in the Lumbini region where the Buddha was born. Islam, Christianity, and other religions are also represented.

Nepali cuisine is diverse and includes dishes with rice, pasta, and both vegetarian and meat dishes. Dal Bhat is a traditional Nepali dish consisting of lentil soup, rice, and various vegetables or meat.


UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 4


  1. Kathmandu Valley (1979) – A valley with seven groups of Hindu and Buddhist monuments, with palaces and gardens.
  2. Sagarmatha National Park (1979) – A high mountain national park in the area of Mount Everest.
  3. Chitvan National Park (1984) – A national park at the foot of the Himalayas – it protects the population of one-horned rhinoceros and the Bengal tiger.
  4. Lumbini (1997) – A Buddhist pilgrimage site that contains archaeological finds associated with the birth of Gautama Buddha.


National parks: 12


  1. Chitwan National Park
  2. Sagarmatha National Park
  3. Langtang National Park
  4. Rara National Park
  5. National Park Khaptad
  6. Shey Phoksundo National Park
  7. Bardiya National Park
  8. Makalu Barun National Park
  9. Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park
  10. Banke National Park
  11. Shuklaphanta National Park
  12. Parsa National Park