Date of establishment: August 14, 1947

Brief history:

  • Ancient History: The territory that makes up Pakistan today has a rich history dating back to ancient civilizations such as the Harappan civilization that existed around 3300 BCE.
  • British India: Pakistan was part of British India from the 19th century until 1947. During this period, it was under colonial rule and the population actively participated in the struggle for independence.
  • Partition of India: On 14 August 1947, Pakistan was declared as a separate state for the Muslim population, while India became a separate state for the Hindus. This division was accompanied by mass migrations and violence.
  • First War with India: Shortly after the creation of Pakistan, the first war with India broke out in 1947-1948 over the disputed territory of Kashmir, which became the basis for further conflicts between the two countries.
  • East Pakistan War: The East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) War of 1971-1972 led to the emergence of the independent state of Bangladesh and weakened the unity of Pakistan.
  • Rule by military dictators: Most of Pakistan’s post-war history has been marked by the rule of military dictators alternating with periods of civilian rule.
  • Islamization: In the 1980s, the process of Islamization of the country began, which had a significant impact on politics and society in Pakistan.
  • Wars with India: Pakistan has been involved in several conflicts with India including the 1965 war and the 1999 Kargil War.


International abbreviation: PK


Currency: Pakistani rupee (PKR)

The Pakistani rupee is the official currency of the country and is used for all transactions and business in Pakistan. One Pakistani rupee was divided into 100 paisa, but this subunit is now defunct.


Internet domain: pk


Dialing code: +92


Time zone: GMT +5



Pakistan has many major mountain ranges, including the Himalayas in the north and west, the Karakoram Mountains in the north, and the Hindu Kush in the west.

Kashmir, specifically the Kashmir Valley, is a disputed territory between Pakistan and India and is known for its beautiful nature. The area is surrounded by mountain massifs.

To the southeast is the Thar Desert, which is one of the largest deserts in Asia. This area is mainly inhabited by ethnic groups who make a living from pastoralism and agriculture.

It has an extensive coastline on the Gulf of Oman in the south, which is famous for its ports, such as Karachi, which is the largest and busiest.

Several major rivers flow through the state, including the Indus and the Sindhu.


Highest peak: K2 Chogori 8 611 m (28 251 feet) above see level.

This peak lies in the Karakoram Mountains in northern Pakistan, near the border with China, and is also the second highest peak in the world.

Compared to the world’s highest peak, Mount Everest (8 848 meters – 29 029 feet), K2 is known for its greater difficulty and for there having been far fewer successful ascents.



The southern part of Pakistan, including the Thar Desert, has an arid and desert climate. Summer temperatures can reach extremely high values and precipitation is minimal.

The coastal areas in the south, especially around the port of Karachi, have a Mediterranean climate with hot summers and mild winters. Monsoon rains occur in this area, which can bring precipitation especially in summer.

The Karakoram Mountains, the Himalayas, and the Hindu Kush have a continental and subarctic climate with extreme temperature differences between summer and winter. In winter, temperatures can drop to very low values, while in summer they can be pleasantly warm.

Situated in the Himalayas, Kashmir has an alpine climate with cool summers and cold winters.

The country experiences the monsoon season, which usually brings rain from July to September, especially in the eastern and northeastern parts of the country. Monsoon rains are important for agriculture and the water supply, but they can also cause flooding.


Fauna and flora:

Pakistan is home to various species of cats, including snow leopards that inhabit the Himalayan regions.

The Markhor is a rare ibex found in mountainous regions. It is the country’s national symbol. In the southern part, near the border with India, you can find Indian elephants living in protected reserves. The state is also home to various species of birds, including the osprey, which hunts fish in rivers and lakes.

In the delta of the Indus River, which flows into the Gulf of Oman, you can find Indus river dolphins. The chinkara is a species of gazelle inhabiting the Thar desert region.

Oaks, including pedunculate oaks, are widespread in the mountains and forests of northern Pakistan.

Himalayan cedars are important trees in the Karakoram and Himalayan mountains. Different types of ferns can be found in mountainous areas.

Pakistan’s Gulf of Oman coast is home to mangrove forests that are important for ecosystems and coastal protection.



The main crops grown include rice, wheat, cotton, sugarcane, cotton, maize, barley, sunflowers, and soybeans.

It is known for producing fruits and vegetables, including citrus fruits, mangoes, bananas, apples, pears, potatoes, tomatoes, and cucumbers.

Cotton is a key commodity for the country’s textile industry. It is one of the world’s leading producers.


Extraction of raw materials:

There are vast reserves of coal that are mined from the province of Sindh and in Baluchistan.

It also has oil and natural gas reserves. The government is taking steps to develop the drilling for and processing of these raw materials to ensure energy self-sufficiency.

Copper reserves are found in Baluchistan, and mining companies are mining copper in the Saindak area. Salt is extracted from the famous Khewra Salt Mine in Punjab province.

The country is also known for its reserves of marble and natural stone, which are mainly quarried in the province of Baluchistan.

Precious stones are found in some parts, including emeralds, rubies, and sapphires.



The textiles industry is one of the most important. The country is known for its exports of textile products, including garments, fabrics, and textile raw materials.

The food industry includes food processing such as the production of rice, sugar products, dairy products, and confectionery.

The chemicals industry includes the production of chemicals, fertilizers, pharmaceuticals, and plastics. The automotive industry includes the production and assembly of cars, trucks, and motorcycles. The energy industry includes electricity generation, coal mining, and natural gas utilization. Steel and metallurgy includes the production of steel, aluminum, and other metals.

Woodworking and furniture production are also important industries, producing furniture for domestic consumption and for export.


Services and other sectors of the economy: transport and telecommunications


Natural and historical attractions: Thatta, Mohenjo-daro, the Karakoram Mountains, Lahore Fort, Rohtas Fort, the Takht-i-Bahi Monasteries, and the Shalimar Gardens

Pakistan has some of the most beautiful mountain ranges in the world, including the Himalayas, the Karakoram Mountains, and the Hindu Kush. These places offer options for climbers, hikers, and trekkers. K2, the second highest mountain in the world, is a big attraction for climbers. Kashmir, both in the Indian and Pakistani parts, is known for its beautiful nature, lakes, and valleys.

The country has a rich history and many monuments, including ancient city ruins, mosques, mausoleums, and forts. Lahore, Multan, and Taxila are famous for their historical monuments.

The country has a rich cultural tradition that includes traditional music, dance, crafts, and gastronomy. The country’s markets and bazaars are where you can taste local foods and buy traditional products.


Waterparks in Pakistan:


Form of government: parliamentary republic

The country has a complex political system that includes a president and a bicameral parliament.

The president is the head of state and the role is primarily ceremonial. The president is elected by an elective assembly, which includes the two houses of parliament and members of the provincial assemblies.

The prime minister is the head of government and has broad powers in running the country. The prime minister is usually the leader of the political party that wins a majority in the National Assembly, the lower house of parliament. The prime minister appoints ministers and is in charge of managing the government apparatus.

Pakistan is divided into four provinces – Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Baluchistan – and two autonomous regions – Azad Jammu and Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan. Each province has its own legislative assembly and governor.


Capital city: Islamabad

Islamabad is located in the northern part of Pakistan, in an area known as the Islamabad Capital Territory, a special administrative region directly administered by the Government of Pakistan.

The name “Islamabad” means “City of Islam” in Arabic and was chosen to emphasize the Islamic nature of Pakistan.


Area: 881 913 km2 (340 509 square miles)


Population: 244 000 000 (2022)

The largest ethnic group in Pakistan are the Punjabis, who originate from the province of Punjab. Other major ethnic groups include Sindhis, Pashtuns, Balochs, Kashmiris, and other smaller groups. Islam is the dominant religion and the vast majority of the population is Muslim, with most belonging to Sunni Islam, but there is also a smaller Shia community. Apart from Islam, there are also smaller communities of Christians, Hindus, Sikhs, and other religions in the country.

Urdu is the official language and is used in the political and administrative spheres. The country has a great diversity of languages including Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto, Baloch, and many others. Each province has its own main language.


UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 6


  1. Mohenjo-Daro (1980) – The ruins of a city in the Indus Valley are from the 3rd millennium BCE.
  2. Takht-i-Bahi and Seri-Bahlol (1980) – 1st century Buddhist monastery and remains of the small walled city of Seri-Bahlol.
  3. Taxila (1980) – A city on the site of a Neolithic settlement, which was successively affected by Persian, Greek, and Central Asian influences. It was also an important Buddhist center.
  4. Shalimar Gardens and Lahore Fort (1981) – These places are excellent examples of Mughal monuments.
  5. Thatta (1981) – The town and its necropolis date from the 14th-18th centuries. century.
  6. Rohtas Fort (1997) – An example of early Muslim military architecture in Central and South Asia in the 16th century.


National parks: 36


  1. Himalaya National Park
  2. Hundrap-Shandur National Park
  3. Nanga Parbat National Park
  4. Broghill Valley National Park
  5. Central Karakoram National Park
  6. Chinji National Park
  7. Chitral Gol National Park
  8. Deosai National Park
  9. Deva Vatala National Park
  10. Gumot National Park
  11. Musk Deer National Park
  12. Hazarganji-Chiltan National Park
  13. Hingol National Park
  14. K2 National Park
  15. Kala Chitta National Park
  16. Khunjerab National Park
  17. Kirthar National Park
  18. Lal Suhanra National Park
  19. Lulusar-Dudipatsar National Park
  20. Machiara National Park
  21. Manglot National Park
  22. Margalla Hills National Park
  23. Murree Kotli Sattian Kahuta National Park
  24. Pir Lasura National Park
  25. Poonch River Mahaseer National Park
  26. Qurumber National Park
  27. Saiful Muluk National Park
  28. Sheikh Badin National Park
  29. Toli Pir National Park
  30. Panjal Mastan National Park
  31. Fairy Meadows National Park
  32. Salt Range National Park
  33. Tilla Joggian National Park
  34. Koh-e-Sulaiman National Park
  35. National Park Ziarat National Park
  36. Pabbi National Park