Date of establishment: October 29, 1923

Brief history:

  • 13th century: Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire, began to unify the Turkish tribes and expand territory in the Balkans.
  • 15th century: The Ottoman Empire reached its peak of power under Sultan Mehmed II, who conquered Constantinople in 1453 and renamed it Istanbul.
  • 16th and 17th centuries: The Ottoman Empire continued its expansionist campaign, but also began to face internal and external problems.
  • 18th and 19th centuries: The Ottoman Empire gradually lost its dominance and came to be called the “Sick Man of Anatolia” due to its decline.
  • 20th century (1919-1922): Mustafa Kemal Atatürk led the Turkish War of Independence, which led to the emergence of modern Turkey and the founding of the Republic of Turkey in 1923.
  • 1920s and 1930s: Atatürk launched a series of reforms that included secularization, modernization, and changes in language.
  • 1940s and 1950s: Turkey was involved in the Korean War and became a member of NATO in 1952.
  • 1960s: Political instability led to a military coup in 1960 and later further military interventions in the 1970s and 1980s.
  • 1990s: Turkey faced economic difficulties and a separatist conflict in the east with the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK).


International abbreviation: TU


Currency: Turkish lira (TRY)

The Turkish lira is the official currency of the Republic of Turkey and is used for all transactions and payments in the country. It has several coins and bills of various denominations.


Internet domain: tu


Dialing code: +90


Time zone: GMT +3



Turkey is located in southwest Asia and most of its territory is located in Asia Minor (Anatolia), while a small part of the country is located in Europe in the European territory of Istanbul, which lies on the Bosphorus.

It has an extensive coastline on three sides. It borders the Aegean Sea to the west, the Mediterranean Sea to the southwest, and the Black Sea to the north.

It is a mountainous country with several prominent mountain ranges. These mountain ranges include the Taurus Mountains in the south, the Pontic Mountains in the north, and the Caucasus Mountains in the northeast.

The largest river is the Kızılırmak, which flows through central Anatolia and flows into the Black Sea. Other important rivers are the Euphrates and the Tigris in the east. The largest lake is Van, which lies in the east of the country. Other famous lakes are Tuz Gölü and Beyşehir. The southern part of Anatolia has a dry and desert character. Areas like the Konya and Malatya plains are located there. Turkey’s Aegean and Mediterranean coasts are known for their beautiful beaches and popular tourist destinations.


Highest peak: Ararat 5 156 m (16 916 feet) above see level.

This peak is of volcanic origin and is located in the east of Turkey near the borders with Iran and Armenia.

Ararat has two main peaks: Big Ararat (Büyük Ağrı Dağı) and Little Ararat (Küçük Ağrı Dağı). Great Ararat is the more prominent and higher of the two and is also the peak traditionally associated with the biblical story of Noah’s Ark. Little Ararat lies south of Great Ararat.



The coastal areas in the southwest of Turkey, around the Mediterranean Sea, have a typical Mediterranean climate. This includes hot and dry summers and mild and wet winters. The area is known for its beautiful beaches and is a popular summer holiday destination.

The inland regions of Anatolia have a continental climate with hot summers and cold winters. The eastern part of Turkey has a harsher climate with long and cold winters and hot summers.

The Black Sea coast in the north of the country has a humid and mild climate with frequent rainfall. The east coast, near the border with Georgia, has a humid subtropical climate with high rainfall.


Fauna and flora:

Turkey is home to several protected natural areas, including national parks and biosphere reserves.

It lies on the migration route for many species of birds, making it a popular birdwatching destination. Notable species include golden eagles, brown ibises, and pelicans.

In the Taurus Mountains and Eastern Anatolia, you can find various mountain animals, including goats, bears, wild boars, and leopards. Near the Turkish coast is the Mediterranean Sea, which is home to a variety of marine life, including dolphins, turtles, and various fish.

It has extensive forest areas that include mixed forests and uniform pine forests. In these forests you will find different types of trees, including pines, oaks, and beeches. Desert vegetation with adapted plants such as cacti and thorn bushes is found in southeastern Anatolia and some other regions of Turkey.

The coastal areas on the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas have rich vegetation, including olive trees, cypresses, and fig trees.



Turkey is one of the leading producers of various agricultural products, including cereals, fruits, vegetables, tobacco, olive oil, nuts, cotton, and sugar beets.

It is also one of the largest producers of olive oil in the world. Olive trees are widespread especially on the Aegean and Mediterranean coasts.

It produces a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, including citrus fruits, tomatoes, grapes, apples, and many others. There is livestock farming, including cattle, sheep, goats, and poultry.


Extraction of raw materials:

Turkey has known coal reserves, which is mainly mined in the regions of Zonguldak and Sivas.

The country has significant reserves of iron ore, which is mainly mined in the Karabük region.

It is one of the main producers of bauxite in the world. Bauxite is processed into aluminum, which is used in the automotive industry and in the production of aluminum structures. Precious metals such as gold, silver, and copper are mined in some parts of the country. It has limited reserves of oil and natural gas, but is dependent on imports of these.

Gravel and sand quarrying is important for the construction industry and infrastructure projects. Turkey is one of the world’s largest producers of salt. Salt is used both in the food industry and in the chemicals industry. Some types of precious stones such as sapphires, garnets, and opals are also mined for gems.



Turkey has a developed automotive industry, which includes the production of passenger cars and trucks. Some foreign car companies have production plants here.

The textiles industry is important and the country is one of the leading exporters of textile products and clothing.

It also has a steel industry, which includes the production of steel and steel products. This includes the production of structural steel, pipes, and other items.

Construction and the construction industry also have an important place in the country’s economy. The country has a large number of construction projects, including infrastructure and real estate. The chemicals industry produces various chemicals and products for industry, agriculture, and other sectors.

The country has manufacturing capacity for electronics and electrical engineering, including the production of consumer electronics and electronic components.


Services and other sectors of the economy: tourism, transport – air, road and sea, banking, and telecommunications


Natural and historical attractions: the Mediterranean coast, the Cappadocia region, Ararat and Nemrut mountains, Pamukkale, the historical center of Istanbul, and ancient excavations of Pergamon and Ephesus

Turkey is known for its beautiful coastal resorts on the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas. Destinations such as Antalya, Bodrum, Marmaris, and Alanya attract millions of tourists every year for their sandy beaches, sunny weather, and wide range of recreational activities.

It is home to many historical monuments and archaeological sites, including ancient Roman cities, Byzantine monuments, and Ottoman monuments. Sights such as Hagia Sophia, Ephesus, Pamukkale, and the Temple of Artemis are popular among tourists.

The country has a rich culture and traditional Turkish cuisine is famous all over the world. Tourists can sample traditional Turkish foods such as kebabs, baklava, and tea, and explore markets and handicrafts.


Waterparks in Turkey:


Form of government: presidential republic

Turkey has a democratic system with presidential powers. The main body of executive power is the president, who is also the head of state. The President is elected by universal suffrage for a five-year term. As of 2018, Turkey switched to a presidential system, which strengthened the powers of the president compared to the former parliamentary system.

The parliamentary arm of the Turkish polity is the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (also known as the TBMM), which has two chambers: the National Assembly and the Senate. This assembly is responsible for making laws, approving the budget, and overseeing the executive branch.

The country also has an independent judicial system and the Constitutional Court, which has the power to oversee the conformity of laws and the observance of the Turkish Constitution.


Capital city: Ankara

It is located in the central part of Turkey and lies about 450 kilometers (280 miles) east of Istanbul.

Ankara has an ancient history dating back to the time of the Phrygians, but it became most famous in the ancient period as Ancyra.


Area: 783 356 km2 (302 455 square miles)


Population: 85 000 000 (2022)

Turkey has a rich ethnic diversity. The largest ethnic group is the Turks, but the country also has significant ethnic minorities, including Kurds, Arabs, Armenians, Greeks, Laz, Circassians, and others. Islam is the dominant religion, especially Sunni Islam. However, there is also a minority of Alevi who practice a different form of Islam, and Turkish Christians and other religious minorities. The country has an extensive education system that includes primary, secondary, and higher education. It also has several prestigious universities, both public and private.


UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 21


  1. Göreme (1985) – A cave city in the Cappadocia region, known for its rock formations and cave churches.
  2. Istanbul(1985) – The historical core of Istanbul with many important monuments.
  3. Divriği Grand Mosque and Hospital (1985) – A complex of Islamic architecture in the city of Divriği.
  4. Chattušaš (1986) – An archaeological site from the Hittite period.
  5. Nemrut Dağ (1987) – Mount Nemrut with monumental sculptures and tombstones.
  6. Xanthos-Letoon (1988) – The ancient city of Xanthos and the sanctuary of Letoon.
  7. Hierapolis-Pamukkale (1988) – The ancient city of Hierapolis and the thermal springs and terraces of Pamukkale.
  8. Safranbolu (1994) – The historic town of Safranbolu with traditional Turkish houses.
  9. Troy – Archaeological Site (1998) – The archaeological site known as Troy.
  10. Selimiye Mosque (2011) – A mosque in Edirne that is a masterpiece of Ottoman architecture.
  11. Neolithic Çatal Hüyük site (2012) – An archaeological site from the Neolithic period.
  12. Pergamon and the surrounding multi-layered cultural landscape (2014) – The ancient city of Pergamon and its surroundings.
  13. Bursa and Cumalıkızık, Cradle of the Ottoman Empire (2014) – The historical city of Bursa and the village of Cumalıkızık.
  14. Ephesus (2015) – The ancient city of Ephesus with important archaeological remains.
  15. Diyarbakır Fortress and Hevsel Gardens (2015) – Historical fortress and gardens in Diyarbakır.
  16. Archaeological site of Ani (2016) – The extinct city of Ani near the border with Armenia.
  17. Aphrodisias (2017) – An ancient city known for its sculptural and architectural beauty.
  18. Göbekli Tepe (2018) – The site of the oldest known sanctuaries in the world.
  19. Arslantepe (2021) – An archaeological site also known as Malatya.
  20. Gordion (2023) – A location with history and myths associated with King Midas.
  21. Wooden Pillared Mosques of Medieval Anatolia (2023) – Historical Wooden Mosques in Anatolia.


National parks: 43


  1. Anti-Taurus Mountains National Park
  2. Altınbeşik Cave National Park
  3. Altındere Valley National Park
  4. Commander-in-Chief National Park
  5. Beydağları Coastal National Park
  6. Lake Beyşehir National Park
  7. Boğazköy-Alacahöyük National Park
  8. Botan Valley National Park
  9. Dilek Peninsula-Büyük Menderes Delta National Park
  10. Lake Gala National Park
  11. Mount Gullük-Termessos National Park
  12. Hatila Valley National Park
  13. Mount Honaz National Park
  14. Mount Ilgaz National Park
  15. İğneada Floodplain Forests National Park
  16. Independence National Park
  17. Kaçkar Mountains National Park
  18. Karagöl-Sahara National Park
  19. Karatepe-Aslantaş National Park
  20. Kazdağı National Park
  21. Kızıldağ National Park
  22. Mount Kop Defense National Park
  23. Lake Kovada National Park
  24. Köprülü Canyon National Park
  25. Kuşcenneti National Park
  26. Kure Mountains National Park
  27. Battle of Manzikert National Park
  28. Marmaris National Park
  29. Munzur Valley National Park
  30. Mount Nemrut National Park
  31. Nene Hatun National Park
  32. Battle of Sakarya National Park
  33. Saklıkent National Park
  34. Sarıkamış-Allahuekber Mountains National Park
  35. Soğuksu National Park
  36. Mount Sipylus National Park
  37. Sultan Reedy National Park
  38. Tek Tek Mountains National Park
  39. Ancient Troy National Park
  40. Uludağ National Park
  41. Yedigöller National Park
  42. Yozgat Pine Grove National Park
  43. Yumurtalık Lagoon National Park