AUSTRALIA

Date of establishment: January 1, 1901

Brief history:

  • Discovery of Australia: In 1606, the Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon discovered the northern part of Australia. Other European explorers came later, including James Cook, who arrived on the east coast of Australia in 1770.
  • British Colonies: After Cook’s discovery, British colonies were established on the Australian continent, including New South Wales in 1788 and other colonies such as Queensland, South Australia, and Western Australia.
  • Gold Rush: In the mid-19th century, a gold rush was underway, attracting thousands of people from all over the world in hopes of riches.
  • Federation: On January 1, 1901, Australia was officially a federation of six British colonies, and the Commonwealth of Australia was created.
  • World War I: Australia participated in World War I on the side of the Allies, playing an important role in the Battle of Gallipoli.
  • World War II: Australia also participated in World War II on the side of the Allies.
  • Immigration: After the war massive immigration began, and many people came from Europe and Asia.
  • The End of White Australia: After World War II, the “White Australia” policy, which was a policy restricting non-white immigration, was abolished.
  • 21st century: Australia has become a modern and developed state with a rich economy and a high standard of living. The country has also become an important player on the international stage and is known for its natural beauty and unique fauna.

 

International abbreviation: AUS

 

Currency: Australian Dollar (AUD)

The Australian dollar is the official currency of Australia and is used throughout the country, including all its states and territories. It is subdivided into 100 cents. It is one of the world’s important currencies and has stability and international recognition.

 

Internet domain: .au

 

Dialing code: +61

 

Time zone: GMT +8 to 10.5

 

Geography:

Australia is a continental country located in the southern hemisphere and is the sixth largest country in the world.

A large part is made up of arid and semi-arid areas, including deserts. The most famous Australian deserts are the Simpson, the Great Sand and the Gibson.

The eastern part is home to the Great Divide, which includes the Australian Alps and other mountain ranges.

The country has an extensive coastline that includes beautiful beaches and many ports. The longest coastline is on the eastern side, where major cities such as Sydney and Brisbane are located.

Australia has several rivers, but most of them are seasonal in nature. The largest lake is the Eyre, which often dries up and fills according to climatic conditions.

The Great Barrier Reef is located off the east coast and is the largest coral reef in the world. It forms a rich marine environment with many species of coral and fish.

The country has significant islands such as Tasmania in the south and a number of smaller ones around the coast.

 

Highest peak: Mount Kosciuszko 2 228 m (7 310 feet) above sea level.

The peak is located in the Great Divide, specifically in the Australian Alps, in the southeastern part of the country.

This area is part of Kosciuszko National Park, which is the largest in Australia.

 

Climate:

In the north of Australia, the climate is tropical, including the Queensland region. The area has hot and humid summers with high temperatures and high rainfall, especially during the summer.

The climate is subtropical on the east coast, including the cities of Sydney and Brisbane. There are milder winters and hot summers with significant rainfall.

Vast desert regions such as the Great Sandy Desert and the Gibson Desert have hot summers, cold nights, and very low rainfall.

A mild climate is typical of the southwestern part of Australia, including Perth and Tasmania. The area has mild temperatures throughout the year and cooler winters.

The savanna climate in the northern part of Australia is characterized by rainy and dry seasons. Temperatures are usually high throughout the year.

The Australian Alps, including the area around Mount Kosciuszko, have an alpine climate, having cold winters with significant snowfall and mild summers.

 

Fauna and flora:

Australia is famous for its kangaroos, which are bouncing marsupials. The largest of them is the Great Red Kangaroo.

Koalas are also iconic creatures of the land. They are marsupials that feed on eucalyptus leaves.

Cockatoos are parrots known for their bright colors.

Dingos are considered Australian predators.

Wombats are common inhabitants of Australia and have a resemblance to a bear. They are herbivores and live in most parts of the country.

The platypus is one of Australia’s most unusual creatures. This marsupial mammal has a duck’s bill and is one of the few mammals that lays eggs.

Eucalyptus trees are a characteristic part of the Australian landscape.

Acacias are also known as “wattles”.

Banskias are another typical Australian plant with interesting flowers and leaf shapes.

Desert roses are plants able to survive in extreme desert conditions.

The country has many species of orchids, including those that grow in the wild.

Proteas are plants with complex flowers and are known for their exotic shapes.

The mimosa, also known as the “sensitive plant,” has leaves that respond to touch and bend quickly.

 

Agriculture:

A variety of crops are grown in Australia, including wheat, barley, oats, rice, sugar cane, cotton, and pulses.

Animal husbandry is an important part of Australian agriculture. Sheep wool has long been one of the main export products.

It has a large area suitable for growing vines.

The country produces a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, including citrus, apples, pears, avocados, potatoes, and carrots.

 

Extraction of raw materials:

Australia has large reserves of coal that are mined in various parts of the country, including Queensland and New South Wales. Coal is mainly used for electricity generation and export.

The country is one of the world’s leading producers of iron ore, which is mined in the Pilbara region in the west of the country.

There is mining of bauxite, which is used to make aluminum. The main mining area is Queensland.

The state also has rich reserves of gold which are mined in different parts of the country.

Diamonds are mined in Kimberley in the northwest of the country.

The country also produces precious metals such as silver, platinum, and palladium.

Australia is one of the main producers of uranium in the world, and it is used for energy purposes and in the nuclear industry.

 

Industry:

The mining of raw materials, including coal, iron ore, bauxite, gold, and uranium, is one of the major sectors of Australian industry.

Construction is important because of large-scale infrastructure projects, the construction of residential and commercial buildings, and other activities.

The energy industry plays a role in the extraction and use of fossil fuels (coal, gas, and oil) as well as renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and solar panels. Australia has extensive reserves of coal, which is a major source of electricity.

Sydney and Melbourne are areas of advanced technology and innovation.

The automotive industry deals with the production of passenger vehicles and commercial vehicles.

Qantas and Boeing are aircraft and aircraft component manufacturers.

The food industry includes the production of food and beverages, and food processing.

The pharmaceuticals industry deals with the production of medicines and medical devices.

 

Services and other areas of the economy: services, trade, banking and insurance, transport, information technology, science, research, education, health and social services, and media

 

Natural and historical attractions: Sydney (e.g. the Opera House and Harbor Bridge) and Melbourne, Bondi Beach, the Great Barrier Reef, Kakadu, the Blue Mountains and Purnululu National Parks, Uluru, Fraser and Lord Howe Islands, Shark Bay, Queensland rainforests and Gondwana Forests, the Tasmanian Wilderness, and the Ningaloo Coast.

Australia is home to magnificent natural scenery, including the Great Barrier Reef, which is one of the largest coral reefs in the world, and Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park, with the mysterious rock formations of Ayers Rock (Uluru) and The Olgas (Kata Tjuta).

It offers abundant opportunities for outdoor activities such as surfing, diving, mountain climbing, hiking, cycling, and horse riding. National parks and protected areas are ideal for outdoor adventures.

It has many interesting cities like Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide. Tourists can see modern architecture, museums, and galleries, and taste Australian cuisine at the same time.

Australia has countless beautiful beaches suitable for swimming, sunbathing, and water sports. Bondi Beach in Sydney and Whitehaven Beach in Queensland are among the most famous.

 

Waterparks in Australia:

 

Form of government: constitutional monarchy

Australia is part of the Commonwealth; it has the British monarch as head of state. In 1901, the Australian Federal Constitution was adopted, establishing the monarch as the symbolic head of state.

It is a federated state, which means that it consists of several individual states and territories that have their own legislative powers. The main states are New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, and Western Australia.

 

Capital city: Canberra

The city is located in the southeast of the continent in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and is the only territory that is not part of any of the Australian states.

Canberra was chosen as the capital of Australia in 1908. The city was planned by architect Walter Burley Griffin and his wife Marion Mahony Griffin.

 

Area: 7 692 024 km2 (2 969 907 square miles)

 

Population: 26 000 000 (2022)

Australia is a multicultural country and has a diverse ethnic composition. The largest group are the descendants of British settlers. Important minorities are people of Asian origin, especially from China, India, Vietnam, and the Philippines.

The official language is English. People speaking many different languages live here due to ethnic origin and migration.

The largest religion is Christianity, especially the Catholic and Anglican churches. Furthermore, Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus, and other religious communities live there.

 

UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 20

 

  1. Great Barrier Reef (1981) – the world famous coral reef in the Coral Sea, one of the largest and wildest marine environments in the world.
  2. Kakadu National Park (1981) – A vast national park in the Northern Territory, known for its natural beauty, waterfalls, rock paintings, and biodiversity.
  3. Willandra Lakes (1981) – A vast area of dry lakes and sand formations, where it is possible to observe various stages of the historical development of the Earth.
  4. Lord Howe Islands (1982) – A system of coral islands in the Tasman Sea. Home to rare plant and animal species.
  5. Tasmanian Wilderness (1982) – A vast wild landscape in Tasmania, characterized by rugged terrain and unique flora and fauna.
  6. Gondwana Rainforests of Australia (1986) – A network of rainforests that are a remnant of the former supercontinent Gondwana.
  7. Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park (1987) – Home of the world-famous Uluru monolith (Ayers Rock) and the Kata Tjuta (Olgas) rock complex with cultural significance for the aboriginal people.
  8. Queensland Wet Tropics (1988) – The oldest tropical rainforests on Earth.
  9. Shark Bay (1991) – A protected marine area in South Australia with important ecosystems and a large number of sharks.
  10. Fraser Island (1992) – The largest sandy island in the world with beautiful beaches.
  11. Riversleigh and Naracoorte Archaeological Sites (1994) – Archaeological sites with remarkable fossil finds that reveal Australia’s past development and fauna.
  12. Heard Island and McDonald Islands (1997) – The only subantarctic islands with active volcanoes.
  13. Macquarie Island (1997) – The island lies about halfway between Australia and Antarctica. The only place on earth where the material of the Earth’s mantle reaches above sea level.
  14. Blue Mountains Landscape (2000) – A picturesque landscape in New South Wales with characteristic rock formations and rainforests.
  15. Purnululu National Park (2003) – Located in the Bungle Bungle Mountains, it is a significant occurrence of conical sandstone karst.
  16. Royal Exhibition Building and Carlton Gardens, Melbourne (2004) – Historic building and gardens in the city of Melbourne of cultural and architectural significance.
  17. Sydney Opera House (2007) – A symbol of Sydney and Australia with unique modernist architecture.
  18. Australian Penal Settlements (2010) – Historical sites that commemorate the history of the penal system in Australia.
  19. Ningaloo Coast (2011) – A stunning coastline in Western Australia with a coral reef and abundant marine life.
  20. Budj Bim Cultural Landscape (2019) – A landscape of indigenous people who developed aquaculture in volcanic soil.

 

National parks: 72

 

  1. Namadgi National Park
  2. Barrington Tops National Park
  3. Beowa National Park
  4. Blue Mountains National Park
  5. Budderoo National Park
  6. Dorrigo National Park
  7. Kamay Botany Bay National Park
  8. Kanangra-Boyd National Park
  9. Kosciuszko National Park
  10. Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park
  11. Mungo National Park
  12. New England National Park
  13. Oxley Wild Rivers National Park
  14. Royal National Park
  15. Sydney Harbor National Park
  16. Warrumbungle National Park
  17. Wollemi National Park
  18. Wollumbin National Park
  19. Kakadu National Park
  20. Litchfield National Park
  21. Nitmiluk National Park
  22. Tjoritja National Park / West MacDonnell
  23. Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park
  24. Watarrka National Park
  25. Boodjamulla National Park
  26. Bunya Mountains National Park
  27. Carnarvon National Park
  28. Daintree National Park
  29. Glass House Mountains National Park
  30. Great Sandy National Park
  31. Lamington National Park
  32. Undara Volcanic National Park
  33. Whitsunday Islands National Park
  34. Belair National Park
  35. Coorong National Park
  36. Flinders Chase National Park
  37. Ikara-Flinders Ranges National Park
  38. Munga-Thirri–Simpson Desert National Park
  39. Naracoorte Caves National Park
  40. Nilpena Ediacara National Park
  41. Nullarbor National Park
  42. Vulkathunha-Gammon Ranges National Park
  43. Cradle Mountain-Lake St Clair National Park
  44. Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park
  45. Freycinet National Park
  46. Mole Creek Karst National Park
  47. Mount Field National Park
  48. Southwest National Park
  49. Tasman National Park
  50. Alpine National Park
  51. Baw Baw National Park
  52. Budj Bim National Park
  53. Croajingolong National Park
  54. Great Otway National Park
  55. Grampians National Park
  56. Murray Sunset National Park
  57. Port Campbell National Park
  58. Wilsons Promontory National Park
  59. Cape Le Grand National Park
  60. Cape Range National Park
  61. Francois Peron National Park
  62. Kalbarri National Park
  63. Karijini National Park
  64. Leeuwin-Naturaliste National Park
  65. Murujuga National Park
  66. Nambung National Park
  67. Purnululu National Park
  68. Wolfe Creek Crater National Park
  69. Booderee National Park
  70. Christmas Island National Park
  71. Norfolk Island National Park
  72. Pulu Keeling National Park