CZECH REPUBLIC

Date of Establishment: January 1, 1993

Brief History:

5th century – Slavic tribal settlements.

10th century – 1306 – Přemyslid era.

1310-1437 – Luxembourg era and the reign of Charles IV.

1419-1434 – Hussite Wars.

1471-1526 – Jagiellonian era.

1526-1918 – Habsburg Monarchy.

Late 18th century and 19th century – National Revival and efforts for Czech independence.

1918 – Establishment of Czechoslovakia after the dissolution of Austria-Hungary.

1938 – Munich Agreement and occupation by Nazi Germany.

1945 – End of World War II and the restoration of Czechoslovakia.

1948-1989 – Communist takeover and totalitarian regime.

1989 – Velvet Revolution and fall of the communist regime.

1993 – Dissolution of Czechoslovakia and the establishment of the independent Czech Republic.

1999 – Accession to NATO.

2004 – Accession to the European Union.

 

International Abbreviation: CZ

 

Currency: Czech crown (CZK)

The crown is divided into 100 hellers, but heller coins are no longer in use. The banknote denominations in use are for 100, 200, 500, 1 000, 2 000, and 5 000 crowns. The coins in circulation are 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 crowns. At some point the Czech Republic is legally obliged to adopt the euro.

 

Internet domain: .cz

 

Dialing code: +420

 

Time zone: GMT+1

 

Geography:

The Czech Republic is located in Central Europe and shares borders with Germany to the west, Poland to the north, Slovakia to the east, and Austria to the south. The capital city is Prague, located in the central part of the country.

The Czech Republic has diverse geographical conditions. In the west, there is a hilly landscape with low mountains such as the Ore Mountains or Šumava. Mountain ranges such as the Giant Mountains, Jeseníky, or the Beskids are also located here. In the east, there is a lowland and inland hilly terrain that transitions into the Slovak Basin.

Many rivers originate in the Czech Republic, including the Vltava, Labe (Elbe), Morava, and Odra. The Czech Switzerland National Park is known for its sandstone rocks, while the Moravian Karst is famous for its caves and sinkholes.

 

Highest Peak: Sněžka – 1 603 meters (5 259 feet) above sea level

Sněžka is the highest peak in the Czech Republic, in the Krkonoše Mountains on the border with Poland. The summit reaches an altitude of 1 603 meters (5 259 feet) above sea level. Sněžka can be hiked or accessed by cable car from the neighboring town of Pec pod Sněžkou.

At the summit, there is an observation tower offering panoramic views of the surrounding landscape. Tourists also enjoy visiting Sněžka in winter for skiing and snowboarding. It is also a popular destination for hiking trips in the summer, allowing visitors to enjoy the beautiful nature of the Krkonoše National Park.

 

Climate:

The climate in the Czech Republic is a moderate Central European climate with influences from oceanic, continental, and sub-mountainous climates.

The average temperature in summer ranges from 20 to 25°C (68 to 77°F), while in winter, the average temperature drops below freezing to -5 to -10°C (23 to 14°F). In mountainous areas, temperatures are lower, and winters are longer and colder.

August and September are usually the warmest and driest months, while May and June are the rainiest. The Czech Republic has relatively balanced precipitation throughout the year, with average annual rainfall ranging from 500 to 700 mm (20 to 28 inches).

Unlike other Central European countries such as Austria or Switzerland, the Czech Republic does not have a significant amount of snow in winter, except in mountainous areas.

 

Fauna and Flora:

Forests cover about 34% of the total land area in the Czech Republic, mainly consisting of tree species such as European beech, English oak, Norway spruce, silver fir, and others.

The country is home to various animal species, including the Eurasian lynx, European elk, European deer, roe deer, wild boar, martens, badgers, squirrels, beavers, foxes, and many others. Protected species include the white-tailed eagle, golden eagle, red kite, capercaillie, European tree frog, and mountain frog, among others.

The plant kingdom includes species such as bilberries, lady’s-slipper orchids, bear’s garlic, Austrian leopard’s bane, white hellebore, and many more. Mountain meadows are adorned with flowers such as bellflowers, pasqueflowers, and gentians.

 

Agriculture:

Agriculture plays a significant role in the Czech Republic, occupying approximately 44% of the total land area. Major agricultural crops include wheat, barley, corn, rapeseed, potatoes, sugar beets, fruits, and vegetables.

The country also has a long tradition of breeding livestock, including cattle, pigs, sheep, poultry, and horses. Various types of cheese, cured meats, beer, wine, and other food products are produced in the Czech Republic.

In recent years, attention has been given to organic farming and traditional farming methods.

 

Natural resource extraction:

The Czech Republic extracts various types of raw materials, including minerals and timber. The main minerals extracted include:

Coal – The Czech Republic has a long tradition of coal mining, especially in the Ostrava region. However, coal mining has been gradually decreasing.

Ore – Tin, silver, and lead ores are mainly mined here. The main mining areas are the Giant Mountains and the Ore Mountains.

Uranium – Uranium is mined in several deposits, especially in the Jáchymov and Horní Slavkov areas.

Kaolin – The Czech Republic has extensive reserves of kaolin, which is used in the ceramic industry.

Granite – Granite is mined in the Český Ráj and the Giant Mountains region.

Timber – The Czech Republic has extensive forests, and the main timber species harvested include spruce, pine, oak, and beech.

In addition to these resources, the Czech Republic also extracts gravel and sand, which are used in construction.

 

Industry:

Industry plays a significant role in the Czech Republic and is one of the main drivers of the country’s economy. A wide range of products are manufactured in the Czech Republic, including:

Automobiles and transportation vehicles: The Czech Republic produces a range of automobiles, including Škoda, Hyundai, and TPCA (Toyota Peugeot Citroën Automobile).

Electronic devices: Computers, mobile phones, televisions, and other electronic products are manufactured here.

Food industry: Food products such as beer, wine, cheese, processed meats, and more are produced in the Czech Republic.

Industrial machinery and equipment: Machines for mining and construction industries, equipment for the energy sector, and more are manufactured.

Chemical and pharmaceutical products: Pharmaceuticals, pesticides, dyes, and other chemical products are produced here.

Construction: Construction industry has been developing in the Czech Republic in recent years, and materials for building houses and other construction elements are manufactured here.

Most industrial companies are located in major cities such as Prague, Brno, Ostrava, and Pilsen.

 

Services and other sectors of the economy: Banking and insurance, tourism, services, transportation – road, rail, and air, science and research, healthcare, information technology.

 

Natural and historical attractions:

  • Prague Castle, Charles Bridge, and the Old Town Square in Prague
  • Český Krumlov Castle and Chateau
  • Karlštejn Castle
  • Kutná Hora with medieval architecture and the ossuary
  • Pilsen with its brewery and beer museum
  • Loket Castle with a view of the surrounding landscape
  • Krkonoše National Park with Sněžka Mountain and numerous hiking trails
  • České Švýcarsko National Park with sandstone rock formations and gorges
  • Lednice-Valtice Cultural Landscape with baroque castles and parks
  • Moravian Karst with caves and sinkholes
  • Litomyšl Castle
  • Brno and others

There are also many other tourist attractions, including castles, museums, natural parks, thermal spas, and other landmarks.

 

Waterparks in Czechia:

 

Form of government: Parliamentary Republic

The Czech Republic is a democratic parliamentary state with a moderately strong presidential function. It has a directly elected president who has representative and constitutional functions, and a prime minister who is the head of the executive. Legislative power is held by a bicameral parliament consisting of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. Judicial power is independent of the legislative and executive branches and includes the Supreme Court, the Constitutional Court, and other lower-level courts. The Constitution of the Czech Republic was adopted in 1993, and the country has been a member of the European Union since 2004.

 

Capital city: Prague

Prague is the largest city in the Czech Republic as well as being its capital, and is one of the most beautiful cities in Europe. The current population is about 1 310 000. It has a rich history and cultural heritage, reflected in its many historical landmarks, many of which are listed as UNESCO World Heritage sites.

Some of the most famous landmarks in Prague include:

  • Prague Castle and St. Vitus Cathedral
  • Charles Bridge
  • The Old Town Square with the Astronomical Clock
  • Josefov Letohrádek
  • Hvězda
  • The National Museum
  • The National Theatre
  • Klementinum
  • Vyšehrad
  • Petřín Lookout Tower
  • The New Town Hall with Jan Palach Square

The city also has a rich cultural scene, including theaters, concerts, festivals, and museums such as the National Gallery, Antonín Dvořák Museum, or the Karel Zeman Museum.

The city also has many parks and gardens where you can take a walk or relax, such as Stromovka, Vojanovy Sady, Letná Park, or the gardens on Petřín Hill.

Prague is known for its vibrant nightlife, offering many bars, clubs, and restaurants where you can taste local cuisine and beer.

 

Area: 78 870 square kilometers (30 452 square miles)

 

Population: 10 520 000 (2022 estimate)

The population of the Czech Republic is predominantly Slavic, with significant minority groups of Germans, Slovaks, and Poles.

Religious affiliation in the Czech Republic is quite diverse, with the largest group being people with no religious affiliation, accounting for approximately one-third of the population. Other significant religions include Roman Catholicism, the Czech Brethren Evangelical Church, the Orthodox Church, and others.

The population of the Czech Republic is predominantly urbanized, with over 75% of the population living in urban areas. The capital city, Prague, is the largest city and cultural center of the country, but other significant cities include Brno, Ostrava, Pilsen, and Liberec.

 

UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 17

 

  1. The Historic Centre of Prague (1992) – This UNESCO site includes the Old Town, New Town, and Lesser Town of Prague. It comprises numerous significant landmarks, such as Charles Bridge, the Old Town Square, and Prague Castle.
  2. Hradčany, Prague Castle and St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague – It is the largest castle complex in the world and a cultural symbol of the Czech state. It includes many historic buildings and landmarks, including St. Vitus Cathedral, the Royal Palace, and more.
  3. The Jewish Quarter and St. Procopius’ Basilica in Třebíč (2003) – This complex of historic buildings, streets, and landmarks in Třebíč, including the Jewish Quarter and St. Procopius’ Basilica, is a rare example of the coexistence of two cultures in one city.
  4. Kutná Hora (1995) – Historic Centre with St. Barbara’s Church and Ossuary – Kutná Hora was a significant silver mining center in the 14th and 15th centuries. The town’s center includes notable landmarks such as St. Barbara’s Church, the Ossuary with its bone chapel, the Cathedral of the Assumption of Our Lady, and more.
  5. Lednice-Valtice Cultural Landscape (1996) – It includes Lednice Castle, Valtice Castle, and the surrounding parks and natural reserves. The landscape is exceptional for its beauty and historical structures, such as the aqueduct and St. Hubert’s Chapel.
  6. Gardens and Castle at Kroměříž (1998) – Kroměříž Castle and its surrounding gardens are a remarkable example of the Baroque style. The gardens feature not only Baroque architecture but also numerous rare trees and plants.
  7. Litomyšl Castle and the Historic Centre of the Town (1999) – The castle was built in the Renaissance style in the 16th century and is a significant example of this architecture in the Czech Republic. The historic center of Litomyšl is also protected as a cultural heritage site.
  8. Pilgrimage Church of St. John of Nepomuk at Zelená Hora (1994) – A Baroque church built in the 18th century.
  9. Villa Tugendhat in Brno (2001) – It is a functionalist villa built in 1930 in Brno. The villa is notable for its design and modern architecture, which was innovative at the time.
  10. Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe (2007) – The forests are characterized by high biological diversity and are home to many rare plant and animal species.
  11. Historic Centre of Český Krumlov (1992) – The castle complex in southern Bohemia is significant for its Baroque and Gothic architectural elements. It includes a castle, garden, park, and other landmarks.
  12. The Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc (2000) – The column stands on the Upper Square in the historic center of Olomouc. It reaches a height of approximately 35 meters (115 feet) and is adorned with intricate sculptural decorations. The column is divided into three parts, each depicting various aspects of the Holy Trinity.
  13. Kladno Spa (2021) – Kladno Spa is significant for its mineral springs and spa tradition. It includes spa park buildings, colonnades, and other structures.
  14. The Historic Centre of Telč (1992) – It originated around the 13th century, and its center is characterized by narrow alleys, picturesque squares, and beautiful historical buildings. The most prominent feature is Telč Castle, towering over the eastern side of the main square.
  15. Ore Mountain Mining Region/Erzgebirge-Krušnohoří (2019) – A vast mountain range and mining area that stretches across the borders of Germany and the Czech Republic. This mountain region is notable for its long mining tradition and rich deposits of ores, particularly silver and tin.
  16. The Great Spa Towns of Europe (2021) – The Great Spa Towns of Europe comprises 11 spa towns in seven European countries where mineral waters were used for healing and therapeutic purposes.
  17. Žatec and the Landscape of Saaz Hops (2023) – the area around the town of Žatec has been used to cultivate hops since the Middle Ages. The site includes historical buildings associated related to hop production.

 

National Parks: 4

 

  1. Šumava National Park
  2. Krkonoše National Park
  3. Podyjí National Park
  4. České Švýcarsko National Park