Date of establishment: Around 980 CE

Brief history:

From 8th to 10th century: Vikings established the first Danish kingdoms.

11th century: Denmark was unified under King Canute VI.

1397: Denmark united with Norway and Sweden in the Kalmar Union.

16th century: Denmark became a Protestant country and began to develop its naval power.

17th century: Denmark participated in the Thirty Years’ War and improved its merchant fleet.

18th century: Denmark-Norway became one of the largest colonial powers.

19th century: Denmark regained control over Greenland and the Faroe Islands and modernized its economy.

20th century: Denmark remained neutral during World War I and transitioned to a democratic system of government. It was occupied by Germany during World War II. In the post-war period, Denmark developed as a modern society with a high standard of living.

1949: Denmark was one of the founding members of NATO.

1973: Denmark joined the EEC, the precursor to the EU.

21st century: Denmark remains an important European country and is known for its advanced economy and high quality of life.


International abbreviation: DK


Currency: Danish Krone (DKK)

One Danish Krone is divided into 100 øre. Coins are available in denominations of 50 øre, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 kroner, and banknotes are available in denominations of 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1000 kroner.


Internet domain: .dk


Dialing code: +45


Time zone: GMT +1



Denmark is located in Northern Europe. It includes the Jutland Peninsula and over 400 islands in the Baltic Sea, Kattegat, and Skagerrak. The largest islands are Zealand (Sjælland), Funen (Fyn), Bornholm, and Lolland.

Denmark shares borders with Germany to the southwest and south and is connected by bridges to Sweden in the east. The capital city is Copenhagen, located on the eastern coast of Zealand.


Highest peak: Møllehøj – 171 meters (561 feet) above sea level

Møllehøj is located on the Jutland Peninsula, near the town of Skanderborg. It reaches a height of 171 meters (561 feet) above sea level and is the highest point in Denmark. The summit of Møllehøj is located in the Mols Bjerge National Park and is a popular destination for tourists who come to enjoy beautiful nature and hiking.


Climate: Mild oceanic

Denmark has a mild climate influenced by oceanic currents and winds from the Atlantic. Winters are usually mild and humid, with average temperatures around 0°C (32°F), but they can sometimes be colder, and snowfall is common. Summers are typically mild and humid, with average temperatures around 20°C (68°F).

Denmark experiences an average of around 170-200 days of precipitation per year, with the highest amount of rainfall occurring in autumn and winter. Weather during spring and summer can be quite changeable, with rapid shifts between sunny periods and rain.


Fauna and flora:

Denmark has relatively limited flora and fauna due to its geographical location and climate. Approximately half of the agricultural land in Denmark is used for crop cultivation, and the rest is used for grazing livestock, resulting in relatively sparse forest coverage.

Typical animal species in Denmark include red and roe deer, European hares, red foxes, hedgehogs, and several species of mice. Along the coast, large colonies of seagulls and other seabirds such as guillemots, gannets, black-legged kittiwakes, European shags, and others can be found.

Forests in Denmark primarily consist of oak, birch, spruce, pine, and fir trees, while open meadows and pastures are dominated by grasses, clovers, and rapeseed.



Most agricultural land in Denmark is located in the Jutland Peninsula and the eastern coast of Zealand.

The main crops in Denmark include wheat, barley, rapeseed, sugar beets, and potatoes. Denmark also has livestock farms for cattle, pigs, sheep, and poultry, and Danish meat and dairy products are among the best in the world.

Denmark practices sustainable agriculture, including the use of environmentally-friendly practices in fertilizer and pesticide usage, reduction of antibiotic use in animal production, and support for organic farming.

Denmark is also one of the largest exporters of food products in the world, especially dairy products, and many Danish food companies specialize in producing high-quality foods such as cheeses, sausages, and confectionery.


Natural resource extraction:

Denmark does not have significant natural resource reserves, and its mining industry is small compared to other countries. In Denmark, only a few resources are extracted, including salt, chalk, kaolin, sand, gravel, and aggregate materials for concrete production.

In the past, Denmark also had oil and natural gas extraction in the North Sea, but this activity is not as intensive as before. Denmark also operates several wind farms that harness renewable energy sources for electricity production.



Denmark has a developed industrial sector and is among the most advanced countries in the world. The main industries include food processing, pharmaceuticals, engineering, electronics and information technology, the chemicals industry, construction, and textiles.

Denmark is also one of the world’s largest producers of wind turbines and wind farms. Danish companies such as Vestas and Siemens Gamesa manufacture wind turbines for the global market, and the Danish government supports the development of wind energy to help reduce the country’s reliance on fossil fuels.

Another significant industrial sector in Denmark is the pharmaceuticals industry, consisting of numerous small and medium-sized companies specializing in the production of medicines and biotechnological products.


Services and other sectors of the economy: services, banking, insurance, information technology, science and research, healthcare, transportation, and telecommunications.


Natural and historical attractions:

The country offers many attractions for tourists, including historical cities and landmarks, stunning natural landscapes, beaches, cultural events, and gastronomic experiences.

Among the most popular tourist attractions in Denmark are the Tivoli Gardens, located in the center of Copenhagen and one of the oldest amusement parks in the world. Visits to cities such as Aarhus, Odense, Aalborg, and Roskilde, which have rich history and cultural heritage, are also highly recommended. Major historical attractions include the castles of Kronborg, Frederiksborg, and Rosenborg, as well as the Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen.

Denmark also has numerous national parks and protected areas, which are ideal for hiking and outdoor activities such as walking tours, cycling, fishing, and kayaking.

Additionally, Denmark and its islands are popular seaside resorts, especially during the summer when many tourists come to enjoy the sun, sea, and sandy beaches.

Danish gastronomy is also attractive to tourists and offers many regional specialties and excellent restaurants. Some of the most famous Danish dishes include smørrebrød (open sandwiches), fish, pork and beef, and various types of cheese.



Form of government:

Denmark is a parliamentary monarchy with a constitutional system of government. The official head of state is King Frederik X, who has a primarily symbolic role, and his powers are limited by the constitution.

The real power in Denmark lies with parliament, called the Folketing. It consists of 179 members elected for four-year terms. The government is accountable to parliament and must maintain its confidence. The government is led by a prime minister, who is appointed by the king based on the election results and who selects a cabinet of ministers.

Denmark is further divided into five regions and 98 municipalities. These territorial units have self-governing powers and responsibilities and provide many services such as education, healthcare, transportation, and culture.

Denmark’s judicial system is independent of the executive and legislature. It is responsible for interpreting and applying laws, ensuring the protection of individual rights and freedoms, and resolving legal disputes. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial authority and oversees the work of lower courts.

Denmark has a strong and stable democracy and is among the most democratic countries in the world.


Capital City: Copenhagen

Copenhagen is the main center of Denmark and is also one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world.

Copenhagen has a rich history dating back to the 11th century when a fortress was founded there. During the Middle Ages, it became an important trading center and gradually developed as a significant city in Europe.

Today, Copenhagen is a modern and cosmopolitan city with a rich offering of cultural and tourist attractions. The most notable landmarks include Copenhagen Castle, the Royal Palace, Vor Frue Kirke Cathedral, the Danish Design Museum, and the famous statue of The Little Mermaid. It also hosts many cultural events and festivals, such as the jazz festival or the World Theatre Festival.

Copenhagen is also an important economic center of Denmark and has a high standard of living. Many Danish companies are headquartered in Copenhagen, and the city is also a hub for financial services. It has a population of about 660 000.


Area: 42 943 km2 (16 580 square miles)


Population: 5 882 000 (2022 estimate)

The population of Denmark is relatively homogeneous, with the majority being ethnic Danes. Minority groups include mainly immigrants from other countries, including Asian and African countries.

The main religion in Denmark is Christianity, with the Lutheran Church being dominant.

Denmark has a high standard of living and ranks among the happiest countries in the world. It has a low poverty rate, high-quality education and healthcare, and relatively balanced incomes. In recent years, Denmark has faced challenges related to growing inequality and migration, but the majority of the population still maintains a high level of life satisfaction.


UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 10


  1. Roskilde Cathedral (1995) – a cathedral from the 12th and 13th centuries that serves as the burial site for Danish kings and queens.
  2. Kronborg Castle (2000) – a 16th-century castle in Helsingor that served as the inspiration for Shakespeare’s Hamlet.
  3. The Parforce Hunting Landscape in North Zealand (2015) – a landscape in northern Sjælland used for hunting activities in the 17th and 18th centuries.
  4. The Ilulissat Icefjord (2004) – an ice fjord on the west coast of Greenland where intense glacier melting occurs.
  5. Aasivissuit-Nipisat (2018) – an Inuit hunting ground located in Greenland, which is part of the Danish Kingdom. This area is known for Inuit culture and traditional hunting practices.
  6. Stevns Klint (2014) – a cliff on the eastern coast of Sjælland that displays rock layers from a 65-million-year-old geological period.
  7. Christiansfeld (2015) – a historic town founded in 1773, built as a settlement by the Moravian Church in Jutland.
  8. The Jelling Mounds, Runic Stones, and Church (1994) – an archaeological site in Jutland that includes two Viking runestones and two 10th-century burial mounds.
  9. Kujataa (2017) – a historical and cultural landscape located in southern Greenland, which includes fertile agricultural areas and archaeological sites.
  10. The Wadden Sea (2009) – a natural area on the coasts of the North Sea, which includes parts of the coasts of Denmark, Germany, and the Netherlands, and is home to many species of animals and plants.


National Parks: 6


  1. Mols Bjerge National Park
  2. Wadden Sea National Park
  3. Skjoldungernes Land National Park
  4. Thy National Park
  5. Kongernes Nordsjælland National Park
  6. Northeast Greenland National Park