Date of establishment: December 6, 1922

Brief history:

4000 BCE – First settlement of Ireland

5th century – Arrival of Christianity in Ireland and development of Celtic culture

9th century – Vikings started plundering the Irish coast and establishing settlements

1169 – The Normans invaded Ireland and began building fortresses and castles

16th century – England began controlling Ireland, leading to the violent Anglicization of the population

1649 – Oliver Cromwell lead s and invasion of Ireland

1845-52 – Famine struck Ireland and led to mass emigration of the population to America and Canada

1916 – Easter Rising, when Irish nationalists attempted to declare independence from Britain

1922 – Formation of the Irish Republic and the division of Ireland into Northern Ireland, which remained part of the United Kingdom, and Ireland, which became an independent state

1969 – Start of the conflict in Northern Ireland between Catholic nationalists and Protestant unionists

1972 – Ireland joined the European Community, forerunner of the EU.

1998 – Good Friday Agreement ended the conflict in Northern Ireland and allowed for the formation of a power-sharing government between Catholics and Protestants


International abbreviation: IRL


Currency: Euro (EUR)

The Euro was introduced in 1999 as an electronic currency, and banknotes and coins were introduced in 2002.


Internet domain: .ie


Dialing code: +353


Time zone: GMT+0



Ireland is in Western Europe. The island of Ireland is geographically divided into two parts – Ireland (also known as the Republic of Ireland) and Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom.

The landscape of Ireland is very diverse, including beautiful hills, valleys, coastal areas, and river valleys. The island has many lakes and rivers, with the Shannon and Liffey being the largest rivers.


Highest peak: Carrauntoohil 1 041 m (3 414 ft)

The highest mountain in Ireland is Carrauntoohil, located in the MacGillycuddy’s Reeks mountain range in County Kerry. It offers stunning views of the surrounding landscape, including Lough Leane and Dingle Bay.

Carrauntoohil offers several routes to reach the summit, varying in difficulty and length. The most well-known and frequently used route is from Cronin’s Yard, which passes through Hag’s Glen and a famous narrow ridge known as Carrantuohil’s Tooth.



Ireland has an oceanic climate, which means it is mild and humid. This climate is influenced by the warm Gulf Stream that flows along the western coast of Europe and brings warm water to the area.

Average temperatures in summer range around 18-20°C (64-68°F), and in winter around 4-7°C (39-45°F). The weather is highly changeable and rainy throughout the year, with an average annual precipitation of around 1 000-1 500 mm (40-60 inches). The highest rainfall is usually in winter and autumn.


Fauna and flora:

The flora of Ireland has over 900 species of vascular plants, including ferns, mosses, and lichens. Notable species include dandelion, meadow plantain, bog cranberry, and common strawberry. The Irish landscape is also known for its grasslands and pastures.

The fauna of Ireland includes many species of mammals, birds, fish, and amphibians. Mammals include the red fox, red deer, Irish hare, badger, weasel, pine marten, hedgehog, and European mink. Common bird species include titmice, blackbirds, sparrows, doves, and common buzzards. Fish species include eel, trout, and salmon. The notable amphibian species are the common frog and common toad. Seals and whales are also found along the Irish coast.



Approximately 80% of the Irish land area is used for agriculture, and agriculture provides a livelihood for many rural residents. Major crops include barley, wheat, oats, potatoes, turnips, cabbage, and carrots. Fruits such as strawberries, raspberries, and blueberries are also grown.

Livestock farming is also vital to Irish agriculture, particularly for milk and beef production. The Irish landscape is characterized by green meadows and pastures used for sheep, cattle, and other livestock farming.

Ireland’s coastline is rich in fish, and much of the population is engaged in fishing.

Ireland is also known for its products such as Irish butter, cheeses, and beer, which are made from local ingredients.


Natural resources extraction:

Ireland does not have extensive mineral resources, and mining is relatively limited. However, some important resources are mined on the island.

The most significant resource is natural gas, which is primarily used for domestic purposes. Additionally, lead, zinc, silver, and oil are mined in Ireland, but these resources are relatively small.

Peat extraction is an important industrial sector, as peat is used as fuel for electricity generation. Peat is extracted from boggy areas and is mainly used for household heating.

Ireland’s coastline is rich in fish, and much of the population is engaged in fishing. Ireland is also known for its whiskey and brewing industry, which are additional important industrial sectors.



Major industries include pharmaceuticals, electronics, and software.

The pharmaceuticals industry is the largest industrial sector in Ireland and includes many international pharmaceutical companies with manufacturing facilities on the island.

Electronics and software are also vital industries in Ireland, particularly in the field of information and communication technologies. Major companies include Intel, Microsoft, and Google, which have their European headquarters in Ireland.

Ireland is also known for its whiskey and brewing industry, which are additional important industrial sectors.


Services and other sectors of the economy: tourism, banking and insurance, information technology, maritime and aviation transportation, science and research, healthcare, and telecommunications.


Natural and historical landmarks:

Popular tourist attractions in Ireland include the Cliffs of Moher, Giant’s Causeway, Ring of Kerry, Dublin Castle, and Blarney Castle. Tourists also enjoy visiting traditional Irish pubs, where they can experience local customs and culture.

Ireland is also known for its festivals, such as St. Patrick’s Day, Bloomsday, and Galway International Arts Festival. Many tourists also visit Ireland for its rich history and literature, such as visiting the places where the famous writer James Joyce lived and worked.



Form of government: Parliamentary republic

Ireland is a parliamentary republic with a presidential system of government. The president is the head of state and has a mainly representational and ceremonial role. The government, led by the prime minister (Taoiseach), is the main executive authority.

The Irish parliament consists of two chambers. The lower chamber is called the Dáil Éireann (House of Representatives), with 160 members elected based on proportional representation. The upper chamber is called Seanad Éireann (Senate), has 60 members and is elected in a special manner.

Irish politics is divided among several political parties, including Fine Gael, Fianna Fáil, Sinn Féin, and the Labour Party. As the Irish government is based on a coalition system, these parties are usually involved in government coalitions and work together in policymaking.

Northern Ireland is part of the United Kingdom, which has a parliamentary system of government with a constitutional monarch as head of state.


Capital City: Dublin

Dublin is the capital of Ireland and the largest city on the island. It is located on the eastern coast and has a rich history and cultural heritage. It has a population of 592 000.

The city is the center of Irish culture and art and offers many cultural and historical landmarks. It is also known for its vibrant music scene and rich literary tradition, including famous Irish writers such as James Joyce.

There are many commercial and shopping centers, such as Grafton Street, O’Connell Street, and Temple Bar, where many pubs and bars are located.

Other notable places in Dublin include the Guinness Storehouse, where you can learn more about the history and production of the famous Irish Guinness beer, and Phoenix Park, the largest urban park in Europe.

Dublin is also a significant transportation hub, with Dublin Airport serving international flights and many ports and train stations connecting the city to other places in Ireland and Europe.

Area: 70 273 km2 (27 133 sq mi)


Population: 50 023 000 (2022 estimate)

The population of Ireland is relatively homogeneous, with the majority being white Irish Catholics. However, there are smaller minority groups, such as Protestants, Muslims, and Jews. In recent years, the number of foreign-born residents, particularly from Eastern Europe and Asia, has significantly increased due to immigration.

The demographic structure of Ireland has undergone significant changes in recent decades, with a rapid increase in the population in Dublin and other major cities. However, there are also remote and rural areas where the population is declining.


UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 2


  1. Brú na Bóinne (1993) – An archaeological site in County Meath, eastern Ireland. This site is known for its ancient Neolithic monuments, including tombs and stone structures.
  2. Skellig Michael (1996) – This rocky island mountain is located approximately 12 kilometers off the western coast of Ireland. At the top of the mountain, there is a monastery dating from the 6th to 8th centuries, built by monks and providing a rare example of medieval Irish Christian art and architecture. Skellig Michael is also a significant breeding site for many species of seabird, such as puffins, razorbills, and gannets.


National parks: 7


  1. Wild Nephin National Park
  2. Boyne Valley National Park
  3. Connemara National Park
  4. Glenveagh National Park
  5. Killarney National Park
  6. The Burren National Park
  7. Wicklow Mountains National Park