Date of establishment: January 23, 1719

Brief history:

1719: Jan Adam I of Liechtenstein founded the House of Liechtenstein, which later acquired the princely title.

1806: Liechtenstein became a sovereign principality within the Rhine Confederation, formed after the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.

1815: Liechtenstein became an independent principality at the Congress of Vienna, where it was recognized as a permanently neutral territory.

1866: Liechtenstein entered into a customs and monetary union with Austria, which was later replaced by a customs union with Switzerland in 1923.

1921: Prince Johann II of Liechtenstein assumed power and initiated political and constitutional reforms that strengthened the power of the principality and introduced a parliamentary system.

1938-1945: During World War II, Liechtenstein remained neutral and provided refuge for several thousand refugees.

1990: Liechtenstein became a member of the United Nations (UN).

1995: It joined the European Economic Area (EEA), allowing for the free movement of goods, services, persons, and capital between Liechtenstein and the European Union member states.

2003: Liechtenstein underwent constitutional reform, expanding the powers of parliament.


International abbreviation: FL


Currency: Swiss franc (CHF)

Liechtenstein does not have its own currency and entered into a monetary agreement with Switzerland in 1923, allowing Liechtenstein to use the Swiss franc as its official currency.


Internet domain: .li


Dialing code: +423


Time zone: +1 GMT



Liechtenstein is a small landlocked country in Central Europe, located between Austria to the east, while to the west, the country is bordered by the Rhine Valley, which forms a natural border with Switzerland.


Highest peak: Grauspitz 2 599 meters (8 527 feet) above sea level.

It is located in the Rätikon mountain range, which is part of the Alps and forms the border between Liechtenstein and Switzerland.



The country is located inland and is not directly influenced by the ocean.

Liechtenstein has warm summers and cold winters. Average summer temperatures are in the range 20-25°C (65-77°F), with the possibility of higher temperatures. Winters are cold, with average temperatures around 0°C (32°F). In mountainous areas, it can be significantly colder, and snowfall is common.


Fauna and flora:

In the lower elevations of Liechtenstein, there are riparian forests that are home to trees such as oak, ash, alder, and elm. In the mountainous areas, there are spruces, firs, pines, and larches.

The forested areas of Liechtenstein are inhabited by various species of wildlife, including red deer, roe deer, wild boar, foxes, and hares. Mountainous regions are home to the chamois, alpine ibex, Eurasian lynx, marmots, and interesting bird species such as the capercaillie, golden eagle, goshawk, and water rail. Rivers and lakes are inhabited by salmon, trout, and other fish species.



Due to the mountainous terrain, pastures and cattle farming are important parts of the agricultural sector in Liechtenstein. Cattle are primarily raised for milk, which is used for the production of cheeses and other dairy products. Meat production is also part of agricultural activities.


Natural resources extraction:

A limited amount of limestone, gypsum and clay are produced for use in the building industry.


Industry: Food processing and dairy industry

Liechtenstein companies are often specialized in the production of high-quality and precision technological equipment, components, and special materials. The production of luxury goods such as watches, jewelry, and other items also plays a significant role.


Services and other areas of the economy: Banking, insurance, and services


Natural and historical attractions: Cities of Vaduz (e.g., the castle), Schaan, and the Alps

Liechtenstein is a popular tourist destination, despite being a small country. Its picturesque mountain landscapes, historical towns, and rich cultural heritage attract visitors from around the world.

Tourists in Liechtenstein can enjoy the natural beauty and outdoor activities. The mountains and valleys offer great opportunities for hiking, mountain biking, and mountaineering. Tourists can explore scenic trails, lakes, waterfalls, and nature reserves that are characteristic of the Liechtenstein landscape.

Notable attractions include the Schellenberg fortress and Gutenberg Castle. Vaduz, the capital of Liechtenstein, offers galleries, museums, and architectural gems such as the Kunstmuseum (Museum of Art) and the Skyspace open-air exhibition space.



Form of government: Constitutional monarchy

Liechtenstein is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government. Its official name is the Principality of Liechtenstein. The country is led by a prince and has a long tradition of the princely House of Liechtenstein.

According to the 1921 constitution, the head of state is the prince, who has broad powers, including the right to veto and the appointment of members of the government, although this was modified in 2003 giving greater powers to parliament. The prince is hereditary, and the current representative is Prince Alois.

The government of Liechtenstein consists of the monarch and a unicameral parliament. The parliament is called the Landtag (State Diet). The Landtag, which is elected by direct popular vote, is the main legislative body and has 15 members.

The government is responsible for the execution of executive power and consists of the prime minister and ministers. The prime minister is appointed by the prince and leads the government in carrying out state affairs.


Capital city: Vaduz

Vaduz is known for its picturesque panorama, with the dominant Vaduz Castle, which is the residence of the prince and his family. The castle is not accessible to the public but is an iconic landmark that contributes to the character of the city.

Vaduz is also home to many historical buildings and monuments, including the Gothic-style St. Florin’s Church, one of the oldest churches in Liechtenstein. Other significant structures include the parliament building, administrative buildings, and modern architecture that reflects the contemporary character of the city.


Area: 160 km2 (62 square miles)


Population: 39 327 (2022)

The majority of Liechtenstein’s population is of German origin, and German is the official language of the country. Other commonly spoken languages include English and Italian. Many residents of Liechtenstein also hold dual citizenship, often with Austria or Switzerland.


UNESCO World Heritage Sites: –



National parks: –