Date of establishment: February 16, 1918

Brief history:

1236-53: The formation of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the emergence of the Lithuanian nation.

1386: Lithuania and Poland unite through a dynastic marriage between the Grand Duke Jogaila and the Polish Queen Hedwig.

1410: Battle of Tannenberg in which the Teutonic is defeated by Polish-Lithuanian forces.

1569: The Union of Lublin formally unites Poland and Lithuania into a federation called the Polish-Lithuanian Union.

17th-18th Centuries: The Polish-Lithuanian Union experiences decline and loses sovereignty due to external interventions from Russia, Prussia, and Austria.

1795: Lithuania is divided between Russia, Prussia, and Austria as a result of the Third Partition of Poland.

1918: After World War I, on February 16, 1918, Lithuania declares independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.

1920: After war conflicts with Poland, peace is established, and the Republic of Lithuania is formed.

1940: The Soviet Union occupies Lithuania and annexes it as the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic.

1941-1944: Lithuania is occupied by Germany during World War II.

1944-1990: Lithuania is once again part of the Soviet Union.

1990: Lithuania declares independence from the Soviet Union.

1991: After an unsuccessful coup against Lithuanian independence, the Soviet Union formally withdraws, and Lithuania restores its sovereignty.

Since 2004: Lithuania has been a member of the European Union and NATO.


International abbreviation: LT


Currency: Euro (EUR)

The Lithuanian litas was replaced by the euro on January 1, 2015, when Lithuania adopted it as its official currency. Lithuania became the 19th member state of the eurozone, where the euro is used as the common currency.


Internet domain: .lt


Dialing code: +370


Time zone: +2 GMT



The country shares borders with Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east, and Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast (Russia) to the south. The capital and largest city in Lithuania is Vilnius.

Lithuania also has access to the Baltic Sea and has significant ports, such as Klaipėda, which is one of the largest and most important ports in the Baltic region.


Highest peak: Aukštojas, 294 meters (965 feet) above sea level.

It is located in the northeastern part of the country, near the town of Anykščiai. Although Aukštojas is not high compared to peaks in other European countries, it is the highest point in Lithuania.



Lithuania has a predominantly mild continental climate with distinct seasons. The summer is moderately warm and humid, with average temperatures around 20-25°C (68-77°F). Spring is mild with gradually warming temperatures. Autumn is moderate with gradually cooling temperatures. Winters are cold, with average temperatures around -5 to 0°C (23-32°F).



A wide range of crops are cultivated in Lithuania, including cereals (wheat, barley, and rye), potatoes, sugar beets, oilseeds (rapeseed and sunflower), and vegetables such as carrots, cabbages, and onions.

Lithuania has extensive pastures for livestock farming, making dairy and meat production significant. Cattle, sheep, pigs, and poultry are also raised

In addition to traditional agriculture, organic farming and farmer’s markets are also developing in Lithuania.


Natural resource extraction:

Several raw materials are extracted in Lithuania. One of them is clay, which is used in the ceramics industry for the production of bricks, tiles, and ceramic products. Limestone, sand, and gravel are also produced for the building industry.

Lithuania is known for its extensive forests, enabling timber extraction. Various types of wood, such as pine, fir, spruce, and oak, can be found in the forests. Timber extraction is important for the wood processing industry, furniture production, and construction.

Another resource extracted in Lithuania is peat, which is primarily used as fuel and fertilizer in agriculture.

Amber is also produced along the Baltic coast.


Industry: chemical, food processing, dairy, canning, engineering, wood processing, paper, and electrical engineering

The food processing industry is one of the most significant industrial sectors in Lithuania. It processes meat, dairy products, cereals, sugar, alcoholic, and non-alcoholic beverages. Lithuania is known for its quality food production and food exports.

The wood processing industry is another important sector in Lithuania. The country has extensive forests that provide timber resources for furniture production, wooden structures, and other woodworking products.

The chemicals industry includes the production of chemicals, fertilizers, plastics, dyes, and other chemical products. A significant chemical industrial area is located in the city of Jonava.

Construction is an important sector that involves infrastructure, residential, and commercial buildings. Lithuania has seen significant development in the construction industry in recent years.


Services and other sectors of the economy: services, IT, and tourism


Natural and historical attractions:

The cities of Vilnius, Kaunas, and Klaipėda, Trakai Castle, wetlands in the Nemunas Delta, the Hill of Crosses, and the Kurskaya Kosa and Dzūkija National Parks.

Klaipėda, a port city on the Baltic Sea coast, serves as the gateway to the Curonian Spit. This narrow sandy peninsula features unique natural landscapes and sand dunes.

The Curonian Spit National Park offers beautiful beaches, forests, sand dunes, and opportunities for hiking, cycling, and birdwatching.

Trakai, a picturesque town on Lake Galvė, is known for its Trakai Castle located on an island. It is a popular tourist attraction, providing insights into the history of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

Palanga, a seaside resort, is popular for its sandy beaches, Palanga Botanical Park, Amber Museum, and Palanga Spa.



Form of government: parliamentary republic

The main organ of state power is the Seimas, a unicameral parliament composed of 141 members. Seimas members are elected by the people in general elections for a four-year term.

Executive power is exercised by the president, who is the head of state. The president is directly elected by the people in general elections for a five-year term. The president has the power to appoint the prime minister and approve the government.

The government, led by the prime minister, is responsible for managing the day-to-day affairs of the state and implementing policies. The prime minister is appointed by the president, based on the proposal of the winning party or coalition in parliamentary elections.

Judicial power in Lithuania is independent. The judicial system consists of the constitutional court, the supreme court, district courts, and other courts. The constitutional court is responsible for protecting the constitution and interpreting laws.

Lithuania is divided into municipalities, each with its own elected council and mayor. Local governments have powers and responsibilities in areas such as local administration, education, healthcare, infrastructure, and social services.


Capital city: Vilnius

It is located in the eastern part of Lithuania, near the border with Belarus. The city has a rich history dating back to the 14th century. It has a population of 602 000.

Vilnius was long the capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and played an important role in the development of Lithuanian culture and national identity.

Area: 65 286 km2 (25 207 square miles)


Population: 2 806 000 (2022 estimate)

Lithuania’s population is predominantly ethnic Lithuanian, accounting for the majority of the population. Minority ethnic groups include Polish, Russian, Belarusian, and others, reflecting historical and cultural ties to neighboring countries. Lithuanian is the official language, spoken by the majority of the population, while minority languages such as Polish, Russian, and Belarusian are also spoken.

The religious landscape is predominantly Christian, with Roman Catholicism being the dominant faith, followed by smaller Protestant and Orthodox Christian communities. Religious diversity also includes small populations of Muslims, Jews, and other faiths.


UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 5


  1. The Curonian Spit (2000) – A sandy peninsula located on the coast of the Baltic Sea. It stretches approximately 98 kilometers (70 miles) and forms a natural boundary between Lithuania and the Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia.
  2. The Archaeological Site of Kernavė (2004) – It contains the remains of many historical structures, including a hillfort, churches, palaces, houses, and other buildings. Visitors can see remnants of castle ramparts, a stone amphitheater, residential houses, and other structures that testify to the rich history of the site.
  3. The Struve Geodetic Arc (2005) – A historic monument that spans ten European countries, including Lithuania. It was created in the 19th century as an international geodetic project with the aim of measuring and mapping the Earth. The geodetic arc was designed and implemented by Swedish geodesist and astronomer Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve. Its purpose was to measure geographical longitude and verify the shape and size of the Earth.
  4. The Historic Centre of Vilnius (1994) – The historic center of Vilnius is a unique and picturesque place that represents the rich history and architecture of the city. It is full of narrow cobblestone streets, charming squares, historical churches, palaces, and buildings with various architectural styles.
  5. Modernist Kaunas: Architecture of Optimism, 1919-1939 (2023) – During the Interwar period Kaunas was designated the temporary capital. This triggered a construction boom. The architectural style combined the national traditions and the contemporary influences from abroad to form a local school of Modernism.


National parks: 5


  1. Aukštaitija National Park
  2. Dzūkija National Park
  3. Curonian Spit National Park
  4. Trakai National Park
  5. Žemaitija National Park