LUXEMBOURG

Date of establishment: June 9, 1815

Brief history:

11th century: Creation of the County of Luxembourg, when Count Siegfried I acquired the territory as a fiefdom from Emperor Otto I.

14th century: Luxembourg counts become kings when Charles IV grants the title of kingdom to Luxembourg.

15th century: Loss of the Luxembourgish royal title after the death of Sigismund of Luxembourg.

16th century: Luxembourg becomes part of other states, such as the Duchy of Burgundy and the Habsburg Monarchy.

1795: Luxembourg is occupied by France during the French Revolution.

1815: At the Congress of Vienna, Luxembourg is recognized as a separate Grand Duchy and becomes a member of the German Confederation. It is united with the Kingdom of the Netherlands under the rule of the House of Orange.

1839: Luxembourg gains expanded autonomy as an independent state within the personal union with the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

1867: The signing of the Treaty of London confirms Luxembourg’s independence and grants it the status of a sovereign grand duchy.

1890: Death of the last Dutch monarch from the House of Orange without an heir. Luxembourg becomes a fully independent grand duchy.

1949: Luxembourg joins NATO.

1957: Luxembourg is ne of the founders of the European Economic Community, forerunner of the EU.

1985: The Schengen Agreement, named after the Luxembourg village where it was signed, abolishes internal border controls between member states.

1999: Luxembourg becomes one of the founding members of the eurozone, adopting the euro as its official currency, with notes and coins coming into use in 2002.

 

International abbreviation: LUX

 

Currency: Euro (EUR)

Luxembourg adopted the euro as its official currency in 2002, when euro banknotes and coins were introduced. As a member of the European Union, Luxembourg is part of the eurozone, which means that the euro is used as the currency in all economic transactions, including trade, banking, and tourism.

 

Internet domain: .lu

 

Dialing code: +352

 

Time zone: GMT+2

 

Geography:

A landlocked country, Luxembourg borders Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, and France to the south.

Geographically, Luxembourg is characterized by predominantly hilly terrain. It contains part of the Ardennes mountain range, which covers the northern part of the country. This area is home to dense forests, valleys, and picturesque hilly landscapes.

The southern part of Luxembourg is characterized by milder relief and more flat areas. There are numerous fertile fields, pastures, and the vineyards that are typical of this region.

 

Highest peak: Kneiff – 560 meters (1 837 feet) above sea level

It is located in the eastern part of the country in an area known as the Ardennes Luxembourgeoises (Luxembourg Ardennes). Kneiff reaches a height of 560 meters (1 838 feet) above sea level and is part of the hilly terrain that is characteristic of this area.

 

Climate:

Luxembourg has mainly an oceanic climate with mild winters and moderately warm summers. The influence of the ocean results in winters that are not too cold and summers that are not extremely hot.

Luxembourg has a fairly evenly distributed rainfall throughout the year, with average annual precipitation ranging between 700 mm (28 inches) and 1 000 mm (40 inches). Most rainfall usually occurs in summer and autumn. The winter months can be slightly rainy, but precipitation is generally lower than during the summer period.

 

Fauna and flora:

The Luxembourgish landscape is covered with forests, meadows, floodplain forests, and vineyards. Sessile oak, European beech, European hornbeam, Norway spruce, and Scots pine trees dominate the forests. In lower altitudes, various species of shrubs, flowers, and herbs can also be found.

In areas with humid climates, such as river valleys and wetlands, reeds, sedges, willows, and other aquatic plants thrive.

Common mammal species include red and roe deer, wild boars, foxes, rabbits, badgers hedgehogs, and weasels. In some forested areas, lynx and wildcats may also appear.

As for birds, Luxembourg is an important stopover for migratory species such as swans, ducks, quails, and herons. Species like jays, woodpeckers, and hawks can also be observed.

Various fish species, such as brown trout, grayling, northern pike, European perch,  and the common carp can be found in Luxembourg’s rivers and lakes.

 

Agriculture:

Luxembourg’s fertile lands support various crops, including grains like wheat, barley, and maize, as well as potatoes, vegetables, and wine grapes, particularly in the Moselle Valley, known for its high-quality wines.

Livestock farming is also prominent, with dairy farming being significant, producing milk and cheese. Beef and pork production are also important. Luxembourg’s agricultural practices emphasize sustainability and quality, with a growing trend towards organic farming.

 

Natural resource extraction:

Luxembourg does not have significant reserves of natural resources. Its geological composition and geographical location do not allow for extensive resource extraction.There is however some quarrying of clay, sand and gravel, and limestone.

In the past, iron ore mining was carried out in Luxembourg, but this has ceased.

 

Industry:

The steel industry has had a significant impact on Luxembourg’s economy in the past. Iron ore mining and steel production supported the development of other industrial sectors.

Mechanical engineering is another important sector. It includes the production of machinery, equipment, and components for various industries, including the automotive industry, manufacturing, and energy.

The chemicals industry is also a significant sector in Luxembourg. It encompasses the production of chemicals, plastics, pharmaceuticals, and other products.

 

Services and other areas of the economy: Economic and tax consulting, IT, telecommunications, logistics, financial services, and real estate

 

Natural and historical attractions:

The historic city of Luxembourg, the capital of the country, is one of the main tourist destinations.

Another attractive area for tourists is the Luxembourg Ardennes, which offers opportunities for hiking, cycling, and outdoor activities. The Éislek National Park is a popular destination for nature lovers and enthusiasts, where they can explore wild landscapes, mountain streams, and forests.

Luxembourg is also known for its picturesque castle complexes and romantic villages. Vianden Castle, Beaufort Castle, and Bourglinster Castle are just a few of the many historical buildings that can be visited. Additionally, you can explore traditional villages with narrow streets, stone houses, and regional architecture.

The vineyards and wine regions in the southern part of the country are another attraction for tourists. You can visit wineries, taste local wines, and stroll among the vineyards.

 

 

Form of government: Constitutional monarchy – Grand Duchy

The head of state is the Grand Duke, who holds the permanent title of the ruler of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.

Power in Luxembourg is divided between three main institutions: the monarch, parliament, and government.

The unicameral parliament is called the Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des Députés). The Chamber of Deputies is the elected legislative body with the power to pass laws and exercise legislative functions. It has 60 members elected for a five-year term.

The government is the executive body of Luxembourg. It is led by a prime minister, who is appointed by the Grand Duke and must have the support of a majority in the Chamber of Deputies. The government is responsible for governing state affairs and implementing policies.

 

Capital city: Luxembourg City

The main attraction in Luxembourg City is the Bock Casemates, part of the historical Luxembourg Fortress, which offers breathtaking views of the surrounding landscape. Another significant landmark is the Notre-Dame Cathedral, known for its blend of Gothic, Renaissance, and Baroque architecture.

Luxembourg City is also home to many museums, galleries, and cultural institutions. Among the most famous are the Museum of Modern Art Grand-Duc Jean (MUDAM), the Luxembourg City History Museum, and the National Museum of History and Art (MNHA).

The city has a vibrant atmosphere and offers a wide range of restaurants, cafes, and shops. The city center is full of picturesque alleys, squares, and parks, inviting visitors to take walks and relax.

The city has a population of about 135 000.

 

Area: 2 586 km2 (998 square miles)

 

Population: 648 000 (2022 estimate)

The population of Luxembourg is diverse and multicultural. Luxembourg has historically been an accepting country and has attracted immigrants from various parts of the world. As a result, there is a high proportion of foreigners in the country, with estimates suggesting that around 48% of the population are foreigners.

Luxembourg is known for its high standard of living and high employment rate. The country’s economy and its financial sector attract many foreign workers. The languages most used in everyday life are Luxembourgish, French, and German, all of which are official languages of the country.

 

UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 1

 

The Old Town of Luxembourg (1994) – The historic core of the city located on a rocky plateau above the Alzette River. The city is surrounded by impressive fortifications, including massive walls, bastions, defensive towers, and fortified gates.

 

National parks: 3

 

  1. German-Luxembourg National Park
  2. Our National Park
  3. Upper Sûre National Park