SAN MARINO

Date of establishment: September 3, 301

Brief history:

September 3, 301 CE: According to legend, Saint Marinus, a stonemason from the island of Rab, and his companions establish a small Christian community on Mount Titano, forming the basis of what is now San Marino.

5th to 6th centuries: Small settlements on the territory of San Marino expand, laying the foundations of the future state.

9th century: San Marino becomes a refuge for people seeking shelter from political and religious persecution.

1243: The Republic of San Marino elects its first two captains regent (Capitani Reggenti), who serve as the heads of state, a practice that continues to this day.

1463: San Marino expands its territory after allying with Pope Pius II against the Malatesta family, gaining several castles and land areas, including Fiorentino, Montegiardino, and Serravalle.

1600: San Marino issues its constitution, the Statutes of 1600, which codifies the country’s laws and governance structures, solidifying its status as an independent republic.

1797: Napoleon Bonaparte offers to expand San Marino’s territory, but the republic declines to maintain its independence and neutrality.

19th century: San Marino maintains its independence during the Napoleonic Wars and the unification of Italy. Giuseppe Garibaldi, a key figure in Italian unification, is granted refuge in San Marino in 1849.

1862: San Marino signs a treaty of friendship and cooperation with the newly unified Kingdom of Italy, which guarantees San Marino’s independence.

20th century: San Marino undergoes modernization, develops its economy, and maintains its neutrality during both World Wars. During World War II, San Marino provides refuge to thousands of civilians.

1954: San Marino joins the Council of Europe.

1992: San Marino becomes a member of the United Nations (UN).

2002: San Marino adopts the Euro as its official currency and becomes part of the Eurozone.

 

International abbreviation: SM

 

Currency: Euro (EUR)

San Marino does not have its own currency and has been using the Euro as its official currency for all transactions and payments since 2002.

 

Internet domain: .sm

 

Dialing code: +378

 

Time zone: GMT+1

 

Geography:

A small state located in Southern Europe, San Marino is bordered by Italy and situated on the Apennine Peninsula. The country is surrounded by Italian territory.

The terrain of San Marino is predominantly mountainous, with hills and mountains covering most of its territory.

 

Highest peak: Mount Titano at 756 meters (2 480 feet) above sea level.

The capital city of the state, also named San Marino, is located on the summit of Mount Titano. At the top of the mountain, there are three historic towers that are characteristic landmarks of the city of San Marino.

 

Climate:

San Marino has a temperate climate with Mediterranean influences, characterized by warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters. In summer, average temperatures range from 20°C to 30°C (68°F to 86°F), while winter temperatures are moderate, averaging 0°C to 10°C (32°F to 50°F).

Precipitation is relatively evenly distributed throughout the year, but it is slightly lower during the summer months when dry conditions prevail. Spring and autumn are mild and pleasant, with average temperatures in spring ranging from 10°C to 20°C (50°F to 68°F) and in autumn from 10°C to 20°C (50°F to 68°F).

The influence of the nearby Adriatic Sea helps to moderate temperatures, contributing to the generally stable and mild climate of San Marino.

 

Fauna and flora:

Most of the territory of San Marino is covered with temperate vegetation, including a mix of deciduous and evergreen trees, shrubs, and grasses. Common plant species include

oak, beech, pine, and various drought-resistant shrubs and flowers that are adapted to the Mediterranean climate. The hills and valleys of San Marino are characterized by cultivated land, vineyards, and small forests.

Regarding fauna, San Marino is home to various bird species, including owls, ravens, woodpeckers, and small songbirds. Birds of prey, such as kestrels and buzzards, can also be seen. The small mammal population includes species such as hares, hedgehogs, and various rodents. Reptiles like lizards and snakes, including harmless species like the green lizard and the European grass snake, are also present.

 

Agriculture:

Agriculture in San Marino is limited due to its small size, hilly terrain, and dense population. Olive groves are an integral part of San Marino’s agricultural landscape, along with vineyards and small-scale cultivation of crops like grains, fruits, and vegetables.

 

Natural resource extraction:

None

 

Industry:

San Marino is a popular tourist destination, which has led to the development of the tourism industry.

Food production, such as olive oil processing, wine, and local specialties, holds significance in the local industry.

 

Services and other economic sectors: Banking and insurance, services, and tourism

 

Natural and historical attractions:

Medieval towers, preserved monuments, and narrow streets offer visitors a unique glimpse into the past. Tourists come to explore this cultural oasis.

Cultural events, festivals, and artistic crafts are also attractions. San Marino is known for its artistic creations, including hand-painted ceramics, jewelry, and other traditional products. Tourists can purchase authentic souvenirs there.

Panoramic views from Mount Titano are attractions in themselves. The three towers atop the mountain—Guaita, Cesta, and Montale—offer magnificent views of the surrounding landscape, enticing tourists to take walks and capture unforgettable photos.

 

 

Form of government: Unitary independent diarchic directorial republic

At the top of the state structure are two heads of state, known as the Captains Regent. These Captains Regent represent state power and are elected every six months. While their role is largely ceremonial, they also have some executive and representative functions.

The legislative body is the Great and General Council, the parliament. It consists of 60 members called councilors, who are elected for a five-year term. This unicameral parliament meets in the historical Palazzo Pubblico building, where it deals with legislative matters and state interests.

The government of San Marino is led by the Congress of State, which is headed by the Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs, who acts similarly to a prime minister. The Congress of State consists of ten Secretaries of State, equivalent to ministers. These Secretaries are responsible for various sectors of state administration and are in charge of implementing laws and managing state affairs.

The supreme court is the highest judicial authority in the country, responsible for interpreting laws and ensuring adherence to the constitution. The judicial system of San Marino includes lower courts as well, which handle various civil and criminal cases.

 

Capital city: San Marino

The capital city of San Marino is also called San Marino. It is located on Mount Titano and offers breathtaking views of the surrounding landscape. This picturesque city is filled with historical monuments, medieval structures, and narrow streets that provide visitors with a glimpse into the past of this small republic.

 

Area: 61.2 km² (23.6 square miles)

 

Population: 33 660 (2022 estimate)

Inhabitants of San Marino are known as Sammarinese.

Despite its small population, San Marino has its own culture, traditions, and way of life.

 

UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 1

 

The Historic Centre of San Marino and Mount Titano (2008) – Both represent the heart and soul of San Marino, showcasing its rich history, culture, and unique atmosphere.

 

National parks: None