CANADA

Date of establishment: July 1, 1867

Brief history:

  • 16th century: The first European explorers, including John Cabot, arrive in the Canada area.
  • 17th century: French colonization begins with the establishment of the first settlements and trading posts.
  • 18th century: The British gradually gain control over part of the territory, including the Plain of Abraham, where a decisive battle takes place between the British and French armies.
  • 1867: The North American Act unites the provinces of Upper Canada, Lower Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia into the federal state of the Dominion of Canada.
  • 1885: Completion of the Canadian Transcontinental Railway, helping to strengthen the nation’s connection.
  • 1914-1918: Canada participates in World War I as part of the British Empire.
  • 1939-1945: During World War II, Canada again plays an important role on the side of the Allies.
  • 1960: Canada experiences a cultural and social revolution, including major changes in women’s and minority rights.
  • 1982: Passage of the Canada Bill of Rights, making Canada independent on constitutional and human rights issues.
  • 1999: The territory of Nunavut is separated from the Northwest Territories, creating a new territory with a majority indigenous Inuit population.

 

International abbreviation: CND

 

Currency: Canadian Dollar (CAD)

It is the official currency of Canada. It is a fully convertible currency, which means that it can be freely exchanged for other currencies in international financial markets.

The Canadian dollar is divided into 100 smaller units called cents. Coins are available in a variety of denominations, including 1 cent (cent), 5 cents (nickel), 10 cents (dime), 25 cents (quarter), $1 (loonie), and $2 (toonie). Banknotes have denominations of 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 dollars.

 

Internet domain: .ca

 

Dialing code: +1

 

Time zone: -3:30, -4 to -8 GMT

 

Geography:

It is the second largest country in the world by area, located in the north of North America between the Arctic, Atlantic and Pacific oceans, it borders the USA in the south and northwest, it has a rugged terrain. Canada’s mountains include the Rocky Mountains in the west of the country and the Appalachian Mountains in the east.

Canada is rich in water bodies. It includes many lakes, rivers and waterfalls. The largest lake is Great Bear Lake in the Northwest Territories. Among the longest rivers are the Mackenzie, Yukon and Fraser. The northern part of Canada includes the Arctic region, which is characterized by ice sheets, tundra and unique arctic ecosystems.

Canada has long Atlantic, Pacific and Arctic coastlines. On the west coast lies the famous city of Vancouver, while on the east coast there are cities like Halifax and St. John’s.

 

Highest peak: Mount Logan 5 959 m (19 551 feet) above sea level.

Located in the St. Elias Mountains, which form the border between Canada’s Yukon Territory and Alaska in the US. Mount Logan reaches an elevation of more than 5 959 meters (19 551 ft), making it the highest peak in Canada and the second highest in North America after Denali (Mount McKinley) in Alaska.

 

Climate:

Canada has a variety of climate zones due to its size. The north has an arctic climate with harsh winters and short summers.

Boreal forests form an interior with cold winters and warm summers. The coast has a milder climate with wet winters and warm summers.

The mountains have an alpine climate. Climate diversity affects winter sports and tourism.

 

Fauna and flora:

Canada is home to a variety of large animals such as grizzly bears, polar bears, wolves, moose, reindeer and deer.

Canada also has many species of birds, including eagles, owls, swans and ravens. In the Arctic regions of Canada, you can find polar bears, polar seals and other adapted species.

The dominant tree species are conifers, such as firs, spruces and pines. There are also many lakes and swamps.

Lichens, mosses and low shrubs predominate in arctic regions. Vegetation is limited here due to the harsh conditions.

In the mountains, especially in the Rocky Mountains, there are deciduous forests with maples, aspens and other types of trees.

 

Agriculture: Wheat, corn, pulses (e.g. lentils, peas) fruits (e.g. apples), vegetables, sugar beets, livestock, pigs and poultry, honey collection, and fishing.

Canada’s most important crops include wheat, barley, corn, oats, canola, soybeans and others. It is one of the world’s largest wheat producers.

Canada is a major producer of beef and dairy products. Extensive pastures and farms provide natural conditions for cattle breeding.

Growing fruits and vegetables is an important part of Canadian agriculture. The main crops are apples, blueberries, strawberries, potatoes and carrots.

 

Extraction of raw materials:

The country has extensive forests that provide timber and timber products. The timber industry includes logging for construction, furniture and paper.

It is one of the world’s largest producers of several important ores and metals, including nickel, zinc, copper, lead and gold.

Canada also produces uranium, which is an important raw material for nuclear power. Alberta, Canada is known for its oil sands, which contain oil and bitumen reserves.

 

Industry:

Canada is home to several automotive manufacturers and also has a significant automotive supply chain. Cities like Oshawa and Windsor are known for automobile manufacturing.

The mining industry includes the extraction of ores, precious metals, coal, diamonds and other raw materials.

The food industry is large and includes the processing of agricultural products such as dairy products, meat, grains and more.

With abundant oil reserves, including the Alberta oil sands, Canada has a significant petrochemicals industry that includes oil refining and the processing of petroleum products.

 

Services and other areas of the economy: information technology, banking and insurance, tourism, telecommunications, and science and research

 

Natural and historical attractions: Niagara Falls, Athabasca Glacier, cities of Montreal, Ottawa, Vancouver and Quebec, Rocky Mountain National Parks, L’Anse aux Meadows, and the Canadian Great Lakes.

Canada is known for its breathtaking natural scenery, including national parks, lakes, mountains, forests and coastlines. Visitors can explore vast boreal forests, views of the Rocky Mountains, arctic tundra, waterfalls and much more. Cities such as Toronto, Vancouver, Montreal and Québec attract tourists with their architecture, culinary scene, art festivals and vibrant cultural life.

The country offers a rich cultural and historical scene, including museums, galleries, historical monuments and indigenous traditions.

With its snow-capped mountains and extensive ski areas, Canada is popular for skiing, snowboarding and other winter sports.

 

Waterparks in Canada:

 

Form of government: federal constitutional monarchy

The polity of Canada is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy where the King or Queen of Canada functions as head of state. Canada is a member of the Commonwealth and part of the Commonwealth Real Estate, which means that the British monarch also holds the title of King or Queen of Canada. This role is largely ceremonial in nature and ordinary constitutional powers are exercised by local authorities.

The main legislative body in Canada is parliament, which consists of two chambers: the House of Representatives and the Senate. The House of Representatives is elected by the citizens of Canada and consists of MPs who represent individual constituencies. The Senate, on the other hand, has fewer powers and its members are appointed by the King on the proposal of the prime minister.

Executive power in the country is exercised by the prime minister, who is the head of government. The prime minister is always a member of the House of Representatives and usually belongs to the political party with the largest representation in parliament. The prime minister heads the government and has the power to appoint cabinet members and direct the country’s domestic and foreign policy. Canada has a federal system of government, which means that powers are divided between the federal and provincial levels. The provinces have jurisdiction over matters not explicitly assigned to the federal government and have their own legislative and executive bodies.

 

Capital city: Ottawa

The city is located in the eastern part of Canada, in the province of Ontario. It is the fourth largest city in Canada by population. The city is located on the south bank of the Ottawa River, not far from the border with the province of Quebec. Its location near the border of Canada’s two major provinces has symbolic significance, emphasizing the need to maintain a linguistic and cultural balance between the country’s English- and French-speaking populations.

Ottawa was chosen as the capital of Canada in 1857 by Britain’s Queen Victoria. It was originally chosen for its strategic location near the border between English- and French-speaking regions, which was supposed to reduce tensions between the two cultural groups.

The city is also known for its extensive green spaces and parks. Among the most important are, for example, Gatineau Park, which is located on the opposite bank of the Ottawa River and offers beautiful natural scenery, hiking trails and winter sports.

 

Area: 9 984 670 km2 (3 855 103 square miles)

 

Population: 39 200 000 (2022)

The country is known for its multiculturalism and diversity. Major groups include Anglophones, Francophones, Indigenous Peoples (First Nations), Asians, Africans, Europeans, and many others.

Canada is officially a bilingual country, with English and French as the official languages. Especially in the province of Québec, French is the main language. Most of Canada’s population lives in cities. The major cities such as Toronto, Vancouver, Montreal and Calgary represent the cultural, economic and demographic centers of the country.

 

UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 20

 

  1. Old Town Lunenburg (1995) – Historic 18th and 19th century Nova Scotia fishing village with original architecture.
  2. Pimachiowin Aki (2018) – Places associated with First Nations culture and traditional way of life.
  3. Red Bay Basque Whaling Station (2013) – A historic whaling station in Labrador Bay.
  4. Rideau Canal (2007) – A historic canal connecting Lake Ontario and the Ottawa River, important for defense and economic development.
  5. SGang Gwaay (1981) – An important record of Haida culture and heritage on the coast of British Columbia.
  6. Waterton Glacier International Peace Park (1995) – Transnational site of beautiful nature and wildlife.
  7. Wood Buffalo National Park (1983) – Home to the largest wild bison herd in North America.
  8. Writing-on-Stone / Áísínai’pi (2019) – A rock art site and petroglyphs by indigenous people.
  9. Kluane / Wrangell-St. Elias / Glacier Bay / Tatshenshini-Alsek (1979) – Transnational parks with extensive glaciers and mountains.
  10. L’Anse aux Meadows Historic Site (1978) – An archaeological site of Viking settlers.
  11. Landscape of Grand Pré (2012) – A Reminder of the history of Acadian settlers in Nova Scotia.
  12. Miguasha National Park (1999) – A paleontological site of prehistoric fish and animals.
  13. Mistaken Point (2016) – A site with unique fossil finds on the ocean floor.
  14. Nahanni National Park (1978) – A park with mountainous landscape, waterfalls and canyons.
  15. Canadian National Parks in the Rocky Mountains – National Parks in the Rocky Mountains with beautiful nature and climbing opportunities.
  16. Dinosaur National Park (1979) – A park with dinosaur fossil remains.
  17. Gros Morne National Park (1987) – A park with a geological wealth of fjords, mountains and glaciers.
  18. Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump (1981) – A historic site of bison hunting by Native Americans.
  19. The Historic District of Old Québec (1985) – An old district preserving historic architecture.
  20. Joggins Cliffs with Fossils (2008) – Cliffs with fossils depicting the evolution of life on Earth.

 

National parks: 43

 

  1. Aulavik National Park
  2. Auyuittuq National Park
  3. Banff National Park
  4. Bruce Peninsula National Park
  5. Cape Breton Highlands National Park
  6. Elk Island National Park
  7. Fathom Five Marine Park National Park
  8. Forillon National Park
  9. Fundy National Park
  10. Georgian Bay Islands National Park
  11. Glacier National Park
  12. Grasslands National Park
  13. Gros Morne National Park
  14. Gulf Islands National Park
  15. Gwaii Haanas National Park and Haida Heritage Site
  16. Ivvavik National Park
  17. Jasper National Park
  18. Kejimkujik National Park
  19. Kluane National Park
  20. Kootenay National Park
  21. Kouchibouguac National Park
  22. La Mauricie National Park
  23. Mingan Archipelago National Park
  24. Mount Revelstoke National Park
  25. Nahanni National Park
  26. Pacific Rim National Park
  27. Point Pelee National Park
  28. Prince Albert National Park
  29. Prince Edward Island National Park
  30. Pukaskwa National Park
  31. Quttinirpaaq National Park
  32. Riding Mountain National Park
  33. Saguenay National Park – St. Lawrence Marine Park
  34. Sirmilik National Park
  35. National Park St. Lawrence Islands
  36. Terra Nova National Park
  37. Tuktut Nogait National Park
  38. Ukkusiksalik National Park
  39. Vuntut National Park
  40. Wapusk National Park
  41. Waterton Lakes National Park
  42. Wood Buffalo National Park
  43. Yoho National Park