COSTA RICA

Date of establishment: September 15, 1821

Brief history:

  • 16th century: Spanish colonization begins, and Costa Rica becomes part of the Spanish colonial empire.
  • September 15, 1821: Costa Rica gains independence from Spain as part of the Federation of Central American States.
  • 1838: The Federation of Central American States dissolves, and Costa Rica becomes an independent republic.
  • 1870-1882: Costa Rica undergoes a period of liberal reform and economic modernization.
  • 1948: After a period of political instability and strife, civil war breaks out. This war is ended by the armed forces and brings President José Figueres Ferrer to power.
  • 1949: A new constitution was adopted that abolished the military and provided for the demilitarization of Costa Rica.
  • 1980-1990: Economic crisis and political tension mark this decade.
  • 1987: Costa Rica adopts a new constitution that strengthens civil rights and environmental protection.
  • Late 20th century: Costa Rica gradually becomes an important tourist destination and ecotourism center.
  • 2000: Costa Rica joins regional and international trade agreements, affecting the country’s economic growth.

 

International abbreviation: CR

 

Currency: Costa Rican Colon (CRC)

The currency is named after the first Spanish conqueror of Costa Rica, Cristóbal Colón. However, in 2006, it was decided that the Costa Rican colón would gradually be replaced as the official currency by the United States dollar (USD) for economic stability and ease of trade with other countries.

 

Internet domain: .cr

 

Dialing code: +506

 

Time zone: -6 GMT

 

Geography:

Costa Rica is a Central American country located between the Caribbean Sea to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. The country is known for its vast rainforests, which host a rich biodiversity. These areas are important for the ecosystem and many species of animals and plants.

The central part of the country is made up of mountain ranges that extend from south to north.

 

Highest peak: Cerro Chirripo 3 820 m (12 533 feet) above sea level.

This peak is located in the central part of the country and is part of the Chirripó National Park. The climb to the top of Cerro Chirripó is a popular trek for hikers who want to experience breathtaking mountain scenery and enjoy views of the surrounding countryside as well as the Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean.

 

Climate:

Costa Rica has a tropical climate with two main seasons: a rainy season and a drier season. On the east coast near the Caribbean Sea, rain is frequent throughout the year, while on the west coast near the Pacific Ocean there is a more pronounced seasonal change between the rainy months (May to November) and the drier months (December to April).

 

Fauna and flora:

Costa Rica is home to several species of monkeys, including capuchins, sloths, and even howler monkeys.

The country hosts more than 800 species of birds, including parrots, hummingbirds and toucans.

Costa Rica has many species of lizards, snakes (including some venomous species) and crocodiles.

There are many rainforests with rich flora, including various types of trees, epiphytes (plants growing on other plants) and vines.

Orchids are abundant in Costa Rica and come in a wide variety of colors and shapes. Palm trees are common along the coastlines and beaches.

 

Agriculture:

Costa Rica is known for its quality Arabica. Coffee is one of the country’s main exports.

Banana production is also an important industry. Costa Rica is one of the world’s largest exporters of bananas.

Pineapples are another important export product. Costa Rica is famous for its sweet pineapples.

Sugarcane is a traditional crop grown on plantations.

The country also has a dairy industry and produces dairy products.

 

Extraction of raw materials:

Costa Rica has some reserves of precious metals such as gold. A small amount of gold mining takes place in some localities.

Salt is extracted in the vicinity of some salt lakes.

In addition, small amounts of various minerals such as iron ore, nickel, quartz, and potassium salts are mined in Costa Rica.

 

Industry:

The food sector is an important industry. It includes food processing such as dairy products, meat, beverages and confectionery.

Costa Rica also has a pharmaceuticals industry that focuses on the production of medicines and health products. Electronic devices, components and consumer electronics are produced. In recent years, the technology industry has been growing, with an emphasis on software, IT services and technological development.

 

Services and other areas of the economy: tourism, transport, information technology, and telecommunications

 

Natural and historical attractions: San José, Monteverde Reserve, Manuel Antonio, Tortuguero and Cahuita National Parks, Arenal and Poás volcanoes.

Manuel Antonio National Park combines rainforest with beaches and offers animal watching, beautiful sandy beaches and adventure.

Arenal is an active volcano that attracts tourists with its hot springs, rock climbing and adventure activities. Monteverde is a region known for its cloud forest reserve and wooden signboards that allow you to observe the trees and animals of the forest.

There are many other interesting places and tourist attractions in Costa Rica.

 

Waterparks in Costa Rica:

 

Form of government: presidential republic

Costa Rica has a democratic republican system of government. Its polity is based on a constitution that provides basic rights and freedoms to the country’s citizens. Costa Rica has one of the oldest and most stable democratic systems in Central America.

The head of state is the president, who is elected by universal suffrage for a four-year term. The government has three branches: executive, legislative and judicial. Executive power rests with the president, who is also the head of government. Costa Rica has a system of representative democracy, where citizens elect their representatives to the National Assembly, which consists of two chambers – the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate.

Costa Rica has a traditional commitment to demilitarization and the peaceful resolution of conflicts. The country abolished its military in 1949 and instead focused on investing in education, health and environmental protection.

 

Capital city: San José

San José is a modern city with strong contrasts between the historic districts and the modern parts.

This city is located in the central part of the country, in the middle of the Valle Central valley.

The city center offers beautiful architecture, colonial buildings and historical monuments. Of particular interest is, for example, Plaza de la Cultura with important buildings around it.

The city has several interesting museums such as the National Museum of Costa Rica, the Gold Museum and the Museum of Contemporary Art and Design. These museums showcase the rich history, art and culture of the country.

 

Area: 51 060 km2 (19 710 square miles)

 

Population: 5 200 000 (2022)

Most of the population of Costa Rica are descendants of Europeans (mainly Spaniards) and Indian tribes, especially parts of the Chorotega and Huetar peoples. There are also smaller communities of Afro-Costa Ricans who come mainly from the Caribbean.The official language is Spanish. Most residents speak Spanish, but some may also speak English, especially in regions with larger Afro-Costa Rican communities. Christianity is the dominant religion in Costa Rica, with the majority of the population following the Roman Catholic Church.

Costa Rica has compulsory schooling and is known for its emphasis on education. Literacy is high, especially among the younger generations.

 

UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 4

 

  1. Area de Conversación Guanacaste (1999) – Territory (Central America to northern Mexico) where we find key habitats for endangered or rare plant or animal species.
  2. Talamanca Range-La Amistad (1983) – A nature reserve in a tropical rain forest area.
  3. The Cocos Islands (1997) – This national park is located on the only island in the tropical eastern Pacific where there is a humid tropical forest.
  4. Stone Balls (2014) – They are an archaeological and historical treasure of Costa Rica. It is a series of mysterious stone spheres that are located in different parts of the country, especially in the southwestern part. These stone balls were carved from local stone and have a perfect spherical shape.

 

National parks: 20

 

  1. Alberto Manuel Brenes National Park
  2. Arenal Volcano National Park
  3. Braulio Carrillo National Park
  4. Cahuita National Park
  5. Carara National Park
  6. Chirripó National Park
  7. Corcovado National Park
  8. Grecia Forest National Park (Bosque del Niño)
  9. Guayabo Monument National Park
  10. Irazú Volcano National Park
  11. La Cangreja National Park
  12. Los Quetzales National Park
  13. Manuel Antonio National Park
  14. Marino Ballena National Park
  15. Poás Volcano National Park
  16. Rincón de la Vieja National Park
  17. Santa Rosa National Park
  18. Tenorio Volcano National Park
  19. Tortuguero National Park
  20. Turrialba Volcano National Park