HONDURAS

Date of establishment: September 15, 1821

Brief history:

  • 16th century: Spanish conquistadors came to what is now Honduras during the Spanish conquest of the Americas.
  • 1821: Honduras gained independence along with other Central American colonies when it broke away from Spanish rule.
  • 1823: The Central American provinces, including Honduras, merge into the United States of Central America.
  • 1838: Honduras secedes from the United States of Central America and declares itself an independent republic.
  • 20th century: Honduras was plagued by political instability, military coups, and civil wars. The country has tried to maintain democracy, but has faced many political crises.
  • 1998: Hurricane Mitch wreaked havoc in Honduras, causing widespread flooding and landslides. Thousands of people died and many were injured.

 

International abbreviation: HN

 

Currency: Honduran Lempira (HNL)

The name of the currency is derived from the name of the Indian chief Lempira, who was an important figure in Honduran history. The currency was introduced in 1931, replacing the Honduran peso. The Lempira is divided into 100 units called “centavos”. Coins and notes are issued in various denominations, including 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 lempiras and various centavos.

 

Internet domain: .hn

 

Dialing code: +504

 

Time zone: -6 GMT

 

Geography:

Honduras is a Central American country located between Nicaragua to the southeast, Guatemala to the west and El Salvador to the southwest. To the north it has a coast on the Caribbean Sea, and in the south a coast on the Pacific Ocean.

The country has a diverse geography that includes lowlands, mountains, rainforests and beaches. The western part of the country is mountainous and includes the Sierra Madre de Chiapas mountain range. Honduras has several major rivers, including the Ulúa and the Aguán, which are important for agriculture and transportation. Also famous is Lake Yojoa, the largest lake in the country.

 

Highest peak: Cerro las Minas 2 870 m (9 416 feet) above sea level.

This peak is located in the Celaque Mountains, near the city of Gracias in the central part of the country. Cerro Las Minas is a popular destination for hikers and climbers who come here for the beautiful landscape and the opportunity to climb the highest mountain in Honduras.

 

Climate: tropical

In the north of Honduras, which is washed by the Caribbean, there is a humid tropical climate. The summer months are warm and rainy, while the winter months are dry and warmer.

On the southern Pacific coast, the climate is also tropical, but less rainy than on the Caribbean coast. The summer months here are also humid, but the winter months can be drier.

The interior of Honduras, especially at higher elevations, has a milder climate. The higher altitude causes cooler temperatures, although warm conditions prevail here as well. In mountainous areas, it can be colder at night.

 

Fauna and flora:

Honduras is home to many species of birds, including parrots, hummingbirds, raptors and more. It is a famous spot for birdwatching and has several protected areas that serve as bird sanctuaries.

Honduras has a variety of mammals, including monkeys, jaguars, tapirs, opossums, and anteaters. In national parks and reserves, you may have a chance to see some of these rare species.

Snakes, lizards, turtles and other reptiles live on the territory of Honduras. Amphibians include, for example, various species of frogs.

There are tropical rain forests on the Caribbean coast and in the mountains. This area is rich in diverse species of plants and trees.

The Caribbean coast region is home to mangrove forests, which are important for protecting coastal areas, the richness of aquatic life, and biodiversity.

 

Agriculture:

Honduras is one of the world’s leading producers of bananas and plantains.

Coffee plantations are also an important component of agriculture in Honduras. Coffee from Honduras is one of the most valued varieties on the world market.

Tobacco plants are mainly grown on the west coast of Honduras. Cattle breeding is important for the supply of meat and milk. Poultry farming includes chickens, ducks and turkeys.

 

Extraction of raw materials:

Small copper reserves are present in Honduras, although copper mining is less significant compared to other countries.

Gold is mined here in some areas, mainly in connection with historical mining activities.

 

Industry:

Textiles and clothing are among the most important industries.

Due to the abundant forest resources of Honduras, the wood processing industry is of some importance. Wooden products and furniture are produced.

The food industry is also crucial. Food products such as sugar, flour, edible oils, meat and dairy products are produced.

 

Services and other areas of the economy: transport and tourism

 

Natural and historical attractions: Río Plátano, Río Cangrejal, the cities of Trujillo and Tegucigalpa, Lago de Yojoa, Roatán Island, and Copán.

The country is rich in natural beauty, historical sites and cultural heritage, which attracts tourists from different parts of the world. One of the most important attractions is the Pico Bonito Nature Reserve, which offers visitors the opportunity to discover tropical rainforests, waterfalls and diverse species of fauna and flora. Pulhapanzak Falls is another impressive place near the city of San Pedro Sula where tourists can admire the beauty of the natural formations.

The archaeological site of Copán belongs among the important monuments of medieval civilizations. The ruins are famous for their sculptures and hieroglyphics, which bring a historical dimension to the tourist experience. The Islas de la Bahía areas then provide breathtaking opportunities for diving and snorkeling thanks to the coral reefs and crystal-clear waters of the Caribbean.

Celaque National Park is home to Honduras’ highest mountain, Cerro Las Minas, and offers tourists great hiking and mountaineering opportunities. The Cuero y Salado Nature Reserve protects wetlands, mangroves and a diverse range of animals, providing a unique environment for observing nature.

Many other interesting places attract tourists from all over the world.

 

Waterparks in Honduras:

 

Form of government: presidential republic

Honduras is a presidential republic, which means that its political system is based on democratic principles with the president as the head of state and the executive. The president has authority over the executive branch and is responsible for running the country, appointing ministers and the government, and representing the country at the international level. The president is elected by citizens for a four-year term and may serve a maximum of one term.

Legislative power is exercised by the National Congress, which is a bicameral parliament. The lower house, known as the Chamber of Deputies, has 128 deputies who are elected for four-year terms. The upper chamber, the Senate, also with 128 senators, fulfills the role of a supervisory body over legislative matters.

The judiciary in Honduras is independent of the other branches of government. The judicial system includes lower and higher courts, including the supreme court, which has jurisdiction over constitutional and legal issues. The task of the judiciary is to ensure compliance with laws, provide justice and protect the interests of citizens.

In the political spectrum of Honduras, there are several political parties that participate in the electoral process and represent different political views and interests. These parties are involved in political decision-making and form the political landscape of the country.

Local self-government is ensured through the division of the country into 18 departments (provinces), which are further divided into municipalities. Municipalities have their own elected bodies that take care of local administration, infrastructure and services for citizens.

 

Capital city: Tegucigalpa

Together with the nearby city of Comayagüela, it forms the metropolitan area known as Tegucigalpa-Comayagüela, which is the largest urbanized area in Honduras.

Tegucigalpa lies in a valley in the middle of the mountains on the Choluteca River. The city has a diverse architecture that includes historic buildings, modern structures and residential areas. In addition to its importance as a major political center, Tegucigalpa is also the economic heart of the country, where many businesses, banks, institutions and business centers are located.

 

Area: 112 019 km2 (43 251 square miles)

 

Population: 9 600 000 (2022)

The main ethnic groups in Honduras include the Mestiza (mixed Native American and European population), Amerindians, Afro-Hondurans, and a smaller number of Caucasians.

The majority of the population of Honduras is Christian. The official language is Spanish, which is spoken by the majority of the population. In addition, there are several Native American languages that are still used in some communities.

 

UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 2

 

  1. Copan (1980) – The Mayan site of Copán is an important archaeological site located in the western part of Honduras, near the border with Guatemala. This historical site is among the most important cultural treasures of Central America and includes the extensive ruins of the Mayan civilization.
  2. Río Plátano (1982) – This is a biosphere reserve located in eastern Honduras, near the border with Nicaragua. This area is one of the largest and best-preserved tropical rainforests in Central America.

 

National parks: 23

 

  1. La Muralla National Park
  2. Cusuco National Park
  3. Celaque National Park
  4. Patuca National Park
  5. Cerro Azul Meámbar National Park
  6. Montaña Santa Bárbara National Park
  7. Pico Pijol National Park
  8. Montaña de Botaderos Carlos Escaleras Mejía National Park
  9. Omoa National Park
  10. Montaña de Yoro National Park
  11. Cerro Azul de Copán National Park
  12. Punta Izopo National Park
  13. Montaña de Comayagua National Park
  14. Pico Bonito National Park
  15. Capiro Calentura National Park
  16. Congolón, Piedra Parada and Coyocutena National Park
  17. Port Royal National Park
  18. Rio Kruta National Park
  19. Nombre de Dios National Park
  20. Montecristo Trifinio National Park
  21. La Tigra National Park
  22. Sierra de Agalta National Park
  23. Jeannette Kawas National Park