Date of establishment: September 15, 1821

Brief history:

  • 16th century: Spanish colonization begins with the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors.
  • 1821: Nicaragua gains independence from Spain as part of the Central American Federation.
  • 1838: The Central American Federation dissolves and Nicaragua becomes an independent republic.
  • 1855-1857: William Walker, an American conquistador, attempts to take control of Nicaragua but is ultimately defeated.
  • 1893: The Nicaraguan Liberal Party is formed, which went on to influence the country’s political events.
  • 20th century: Political instability, coups and conflicts between liberals and conservatives interfere with the development of the country.
  • 1936-1979: The Somoza dynasty controlled the country and ruled in an authoritarian manner.
  • 1960-1970: Rebel groups fighting the Somoza government emerge.
  • 1978-1979: The Nicaraguan Revolution leads to the overthrow of the Somoza dynasty and the rise of the Sandinista government.
  • 1980-1990: Civil war between the Sandinistas and the insurgent counter-revolutionaries (the so-called Contras) supported by the United States.
  • 1990: The Sandinistas lose elections and a period of political change begins.
  • 2006: Daniel Ortega, former Sandinista leader, returns to the presidency.
  • 2010: Ortega’s government is criticized for authoritarian behavior and suppression of opposition.


International abbreviation: NIC


Currency: Nicaraguan Córdoba (NIO)

Córdoba is named after the Spanish conquistador Francisco Hernández de Córdoba, who played an important role in the Spanish colonization of the area. The currency is divided into smaller units called centavos. In the past, the country experienced changes in the value of the currency and economic instability, which had an impact on its value.


Internet domain: .ni


Dialing code: +505


Time zone: -6 GMT



Nicaragua is located between Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. It has coasts on the Caribbean Sea to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

The country has a diverse topography that includes volcanic mountain ranges, lakes, rainforests and coastal plains.

It is home to several major lakes, the largest of which are Lake Nicaragua and Lake Managua. Lake Nicaragua is also the largest freshwater lake in Central America.

The Caribbean coast is known for its diverse culture and is part of the Caribbean basin.


Highest peak: Mogoton 2 438 m (7 999 feet) above sea level.

It is a massive stratovolcano located on the border of Nicaragua and Honduras. In Nicaragua, it is located in the territory of the department of Nueva Segovia.

This peak is known for its imposing silhouette and challenging trekking routes that attract adventure hikers and mountaineers.



The Pacific coast, where the capital city of Managua is located, has a subtropical humid climate. Here, temperatures are higher and precipitation is lower. The drier season lasts from November to April, while the rainy season runs from May to October.

Conversely, the Caribbean coast is characterized by a tropical rainy climate. Temperatures are high throughout the year and rainfall is abundant throughout the year, with the heaviest in September and October. Mountainous areas and inland areas have an alpine climate with milder temperatures than the coast. Here there are significant differences between day and night temperatures, and in the mountainous areas there can even be cooling and frosts.

The coastal regions around the lakes have a humid tropical climate with higher temperatures and higher humidity. Rainfall is heavy, especially during the rainy season.


Fauna and flora:

The jungles and rainforests of the Caribbean coast host a diverse array of species, including monkeys, jaguars, tapirs and caimans.

The Pacific coast is home to a variety of marine life, including turtles and various types of fish.

Different species of birds including parrots, hummingbirds and eagles are found in varying parts of the country.

The rainforests of the Caribbean coast are rich in tropical vegetation, including various types of trees, vines and orchids.

The savannas and dry forests of the Pacific coast host species adapted to dry climates, such as cacti and succulents.



Coffee plantations are an important part of the agricultural sector and coffee is one of the main export products.

Agriculture also includes raising livestock such as cattle, pigs and poultry for food production and manufacturing. Tobacco and sugarcane are important commodities in some regions.


Extraction of raw materials:

Gold is one of the main raw materials mined in Nicaragua. Gold mining takes place in various mines and regions, and gold is an important export product.

Because of its volcanic activity, Nicaragua has reserves of various minerals that can have industrial uses, such as sand, gravel or lava rock.

The country also has certain reserves of precious stones such as diamonds and various types of gems.



Food processing is an important industry in Nicaragua. It includes coffee, sugar, meat, milk and other agricultural products.

The textiles and clothing industries play an important role in the country’s exports. Nicaragua produces clothing, footwear and textile products for domestic and foreign markets.

Wood is an important raw material in Nicaragua, which is why the country also has an industry that processes wood and produces furniture and wood products.


Services and other areas of the economy: mining


Natural and historical attractions:

Nicaragua offers a diverse range of natural beauty, including volcanic landscapes, lakes, beaches and rainforests. Residents and tourists alike can enjoy the richness of biodiversity and beautiful scenery. Lakes Nicaragua and Managua are the largest freshwater lakes in Central America. They offer opportunities for fishing, boating and wildlife viewing.

Nicaragua has many active volcanoes such as San Cristóbal, Momotombo and Telica. These volcanic areas offer breathtaking views, but also opportunities to observe volcanic activity.

Ometepe Island sits in the middle of Lake Nicaragua and is home to two volcanoes, Concepción and Maderas. It forms a unique landscape and is an ideal place for trekking, bird watching and relaxation.


Waterparks in Nicaragua:


Form of government: presidential republic

Nicaragua is a presidential republic with a democratic system of government. The president, who is elected, is  head of both state and government. The president is responsible for the performance of presidential duties and the management of the executive office.

Legislative power is represented by the unicameral National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional). This legislative body has the power to pass laws, adopt the budget, and exercise oversight over the executive branch. Members of the National Assembly are elected in regular elections.

The country’s judiciary is independent and includes various judicial instances that ensure legal protection and justice. The highest judicial authority is the Supreme Court of Nicaragua.


Capital city: Managua

It is located on the southwestern shore of Lake Managua and is the largest city in the country. The city has gone through complex events and disasters, including an earthquake in 1972 that caused extensive damage. Managua has a diverse architecture that reflects a mix of colonial, modern and traditional elements. Important monuments include the National Palace, the old cathedral complex and various museums.

Although tourists often head to historic cities like Granada or León, Managua offers tourists several attractions, including museums, markets and opportunities to stroll along the lake.


Area: 129 494 km2 (49 998 square miles)


Population: 6 500 000 (2022)

The main ethnic groups are Mestizos (descendants of mixed origins) who make up the majority of the population. In addition, indigenous Indian groups such as the Miskitos, Sumos and Rama live here, especially on the Caribbean coast. There is also a smaller Afro-Nicaraguan population.

The official language is Spanish, which is commonly spoken throughout the country. Various Amerindian languages are also spoken on the Caribbean coast, and English plays an important role there. The majority of the population is Christian, with the Roman Catholic Church having the largest following.


UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 2


  1. León Cathedral (2011) – A historic cathedral in the city of León – an important cultural monument with a rich history and architectural beauty.
  2. León Viejo (2000) – One of the oldest Spanish settlements in the Americas, whose ruins are an important testimony to the social and economic structures of the Spanish kingdom in the 16th century.


National parks: 4


  1. Volcán Masaya National Park
  2. Archipielago Zapatera National Park
  3. Cerro Saslaya National Park
  4. Volcán Maderas National Park