Date of establishment: September 7, 1822

Brief history:

  • Pre-Columban Period: Before the arrival of European colonizers, the area of present-day Brazil was home to many indigenous Amerindian tribes and cultures, including the Tupinambá, Guarani, and others.
  • Arrival of the Portuguese (1500): In 1500, the Portuguese navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral arrived on the Brazilian coast and the colonization of Brazil by Portuguese settlers began.
  • Sugar Cycle (16th to 17th century): Brazil became a major producer of sugar for the European market. Plantations were built and slavery was introduced.
  • The Gold Rush (18th century): The discovery of gold in the Minas Gerais region led to a mass influx of settlers and slaves in search of wealth.
  • Independence (1822): Brazil declared independence from Portugal and became a constitutional monarchy with Dom Pedro I on the throne.
  • Absolutism and abdication (19th century): Brazil experienced a period of political change, including the abdication of Dom Pedro I and his successor Dom Pedro II.
  • Republic (1889): In 1889, the Republic of Brazil was proclaimed, and the monarchy was abolished. Brazil became a federative republic.
  • The Coffee Cycle (19th and 20th centuries): Brazil became the world’s leading producer of coffee, leading to an economic boom.
  • Slavery (19th century): Slavery was gradually abolished during the 19th century.


International abbreviation: BR


Currency: Brazilian Real (BRL)

The currency is divided into smaller units called centavos. The Brazilian real is a fully convertible currency and can be used for international transactions.


Internet domain: .br


Dialing code: +55


Time zone: -2 to -5 GMT



Brazil contains most of the Amazon, the largest rainforest in the world. The area is known for its rich biodiversity, exotic species of plants and animals, and a number of rivers, including the Amazon, the largest river in the world.

The Pantanal is the largest wetland in the world and is located in western Brazil. It is home to many species of birds, mammals and fish.

There is a vast coastal plain on the Atlantic coast where cities such as Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo lie. The area is known for its beaches, harbors and densely populated cities.

The Sertão is an arid region of the interior of northeastern Brazil with frequent droughts and areas of steppe vegetation.

There is an extensive river system, including the Amazon River, the Rio de la Plata, and the São Francisco. These rivers are important for transportation and agriculture.

In the central and northeastern part of Brazil lies the Caatinga Desert, characterized by a dry climate and cactus vegetation.

Brazil has several large lakes, including Lake Tucuruí, which was created by a dam on the Tocantins River.


Highest peak: Pico da Neblina 2 994 m (9 823 feet) above sea level.

This mountain is part of the Serra da Neblina, a mountain range located in an isolated part of the Amazon rainforest.

There are several mountain ranges in Brazil, including the Andes, which cross over from South America, and the Serra do Mar, Serra do Espinhaço and others.



Most of the Amazon rainforest in the northern part of Brazil has a tropical rainforest climate with high temperatures and high humidity throughout the year. It rains often and intensely.

The central part of Brazil, including the area known as the Cerrado, has a tropical savanna climate with a dry season and a rainy season. It has the characteristic seasonal changes in the weather.

The northeast has a semiarid climate, which includes the Caatinga region. This area is drier and has limited rainfall, especially during the summer season.

The southern part of Brazil, including the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná, has a subtropical climate with mild winters and warm summers.

The coastal regions, including the cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, have an oceanic climate with wet summers and mild winters.

In the Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira mountain ranges in southeastern Brazil, an alpine climate can be found that has cooler temperatures and significant seasonal changes.


Fauna and flora:

The jaguar is the largest cat in Brazil and is a symbol of the Amazon rainforest.

The toco toucan is a large and distinctive bird with a huge beak that lives in the Amazon rainforest.

The hyacinth parrot is the largest parrot in the world and is known for its blue color. The capybara is the largest rodent in the world and is a common inhabitant of the Pantanal.

The American hippopotamus, also known as the tapir, is a resident of the Amazon rainforest and other humid regions.

The harpy is a large bird of prey that inhabits the Amazon rainforest and is known for its massive claws. Rubber trees provide rubber.

The mahogany is a valuable tree because of its hard wood, which is used in construction and furniture.

Araucaria is a tree whose seeds are known as pine nuts. It grows in the southern parts of Brazil. The country has a rich collection of orchids, including many endemic species.



Brazil is one of the largest producers and exporters of soybeans in the world. Soybeans are used as animal feed, but also as a raw material for the production of soybean oil.

The country is historically known as one of the world’s major producers of coffee. The country is known for its quality Arabica coffee beans.

It is also one of the main producers of beef in the world. Large herds of cattle are raised on pastures and farms.

The country is a major producer of nuts, including acai nuts, cashews, coconuts and others. The agricultural production of cereals such as wheat, corn and rice is also significant in Brazil.


Extraction of raw materials:

Brazil is one of the world’s major producers of iron ore. This raw material is mainly mined in the Minas Gerais region and is a key input for the Brazilian steel industry.

Bauxite is the raw material used to produce aluminum. Brazil has significant reserves, mined mainly in the state of Pará.

Brazil is one of the largest oil producers in South America. Oil production is concentrated mainly in the South Atlantic, in an area known as the Pre-sal, as well as in the Amazon Basin.

Nickel mining has a long history, and the country is one of the world’s major nickel producers.

Brazil has abundant reserves of precious metals, including gold. Historically, gold was mined in various parts of the country, especially in the Minas Gerais region.

Diamonds have been mined in Brazil since colonial times, and the country remains one of the world’s major diamond producers.

Logging is also an important economic activity, but it also faces challenges related to the protection of the Amazon rainforest and sustainable forest management.



Brazil has a developed automobile industry and is one of the largest producers and consumers of automobiles in Latin America.

The country’s industry also includes the manufacture of aircraft and aircraft components.

Brazil has an extensive petrochemicals industry that focuses on the extraction, refining and production of various petrochemical products, including oil and gas.

The food industry includes meat processing, the production of food products, and the export of agricultural products such as soybeans and beef.


Services and other areas of the economy: maritime, engineering, armaments, electrotechnical, automotive, banking, and telecommunications and IT


Natural and historical attractions: the cities of Rio de Janeiro (Christ the Redeemer statue, Copacabana Beach), Salvador da Bahía and Brasília, Iguacu Falls, Pantanal region, Amazon River, Serra da Capivara and Superagui National Parks, Amazonia region, and beaches along the Atlantic coast

São Paulo is the largest city in Brazil and is known for its rich culture, art and gastronomy.

The Amazon rainforest is one of the biggest attractions for naturalists and adventurers. The Pantanal is the largest wetland in the world and offers wildlife viewing such as capybaras, jaguars and birds. Brazil has beautiful beaches on its Atlantic coast, including famous places like Búzios, Florianópolis and Natal.

The carnival in Brazil is one of the most famous in the world and attracts thousands of tourists. In addition, various festivals and cultural events are held throughout the year.


Waterparks in Brazil:


Form of government: presidential federal republic

Brazil has a presidential system of government where the president is the head of state and government. The president is elected for a five-year term and may serve for a maximum of two consecutive terms. The country is divided into federal states and one federal district, which contains the capital city of Brasilia. Each state has its own legislative and executive power, which allows a certain degree of autonomy for individual states.

Brazil has a bicameral legislative system. The National Congress consists of the Chamber of Deputies (Câmara dos Deputados) and the Senate (Senado Federal). The Chamber of Deputies has 513 deputies, while the Senate has 81 senators.

The president is the head of the executive branch and has the power to appoint ministers and run the federal government.

Brazil has an independent judicial system that includes federal, as well as state and local courts. The Supreme Federal Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal) is the country’s highest court and oversees compliance with the constitution.

Individual states and cities have their own local governments and elected representative bodies.

Brazil has a constitution that protects the fundamental rights and freedoms of citizens and sets out the basic principles of government.


Capital city: Brasilia

Brasília is located in the central part of the country, in the highlands known as the Planalto Central.

The city was designed to resemble the shape of a bird in flight or an airplane when viewed from above.


Area: 8 514 877 km2 (3 287 612 square miles)


Population: 220 000 000 (2022)

Brazil has one of the greatest diversities of ethnic groups in the world. The population includes descendants of Native Americans, descendants of African slaves, European descendants (primarily Portuguese and Italian), Arab and Japanese communities, and others.

The official language is Portuguese. The majority of the population adheres to the Roman Catholic Church, but the country also has a growing number of Protestant Christians and other religious communities.

Brazil has a significant urban population, with cities such as São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Brasília and Salvador one of the most populous and largest cities in the country. At the same time, there is also a large rural population that is engaged in agriculture and lives in rural areas.

Brazil faces challenges related to economic inequality, with wealthier regions and sections of the population having access to education and health care at a higher rate than poorer ones.


UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 23


  • Ouro Preto Historic Center (1980) – Ouro Preto is a picturesque town in Brazil known for its well-preserved colonial architecture and historical significance during the gold-mining era.
  • Olinda Historic Center (1982) – Olinda is another Brazilian city with a rich history and preserved architecture from the colonial era.
  • The Jesuit Missions in the Guaraní Territory (1983, 1984) – These missions were established by the Jesuits in an effort to Christianize and civilize the indigenous Guaraní people in South America during the colonial period.
  • Salvador de Bahia Historic Center (1985) – Salvador de Bahia is known for its rich culture and history, and the historic center of this city preserves many colonial buildings.
  • The Tabernacle of Bom Jesus in Congonhas (1985) – This tabernacle is notable for its baroque architecture and sculptural works that are considered masterpieces.
  • Iguaçu National Park (1986) – This national park is home to one of the most impressive waterfall systems in the world, Iguaçu Falls.
  • Brasília (1987) – Brasília is a modern city planned by architect Oscar Niemeyer and urban planner Lucio Costa, built as the new capital of Brazil in 1960.
  • Serra da Capivara National Park (1991) – This national park is known for its rock paintings and archaeological finds associated with the first inhabitants of the area.
  • The Historic Center of São Luís (1997) – The city is known for its well-preserved architecture from the colonial period.
  • The Atlantic Forest Reserve in Southeast Brazil (1999) – This reserve protects the unique ecosystem of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil.
  • The Atlantic Forest Reserve on the Coast of Discovery (1999) – Protects part of the Atlantic Forest on the coast of Brazil.
  • The Historic Center of Diamantina (1999) – Diamantina is known for its historic buildings and connection to the diamond mining era.
  • The Central Amazon Protected Areas (2000, 2003) – These contribute to the protection of one of the most diverse ecosystems in the world, the Amazon.
  • The Protected Areas of the Pantanal Region: Pantanal Matogrossense National Park and Adjacent Areas (2000) – The Pantanal is one of the largest wetland ecosystems in the world.
  • The Reserve of Fernando de Noronha Island and Rocas Atoll (2001) – This reserve is home to unique marine life and crossroads of migratory routes.
  • The Protected Areas of the Cerrado Region: Chapada dos Veadeiros and Emas National Parks (2001) – The Cerrado is a savanna with rich biodiversity and these national parks protect it.
  • Goiás Historic Center (2001) – Goiás is another Brazilian city with historic architecture.
  • São Francisco Square in São Cristóvão (2010) – It is notable for its Baroque architecture.
  • Rio de Janeiro, landscape between the mountains and the sea (2012) – This location includes the iconic scenery between the mountains and the ocean around the city of Rio de Janeiro.
  • Pampulha Modernist Collection (2016) – This Pampulha collection includes modernist works by the architect Oscar Niemeyer.
  • Valongo Wharf (2017) – This was an important point for the slave trade in the colonial era.
  • Paraty and Ilha Grande – Culture and Biodiversity (2019) – They are known for their culture and biodiversity.
  • Sitio Roberto Burle Marx (2021) – A site associated with Brazilian landscape architect Roberto Burle Marx and his gardens and artwork.


National parks: 72


  1. Abrolhos Marine National Park
  2. Acari National Park
  3. Amazonia National Park
  4. Anavilhanas National Park
  5. Alto Cariri National Park
  6. Aparados da Serra National Park
  7. Araguaia National Park
  8. Araucárias National Park
  9. Boa Nova National Park
  10. Brasília National Park
  11. Cabo Orange National Park
  12. Campos Amazônicos National Park
  13. Campos Gerais National Park
  14. Caparaó National Park
  15. Catimbau National Park
  16. Cavernas do Peruaçu National Park
  17. Chapada das Mesas National Park
  18. Chapada Diamantina National Park
  19. Chapada dos Guimarães National Park
  20. Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park
  21. Descobrimento National Park
  22. Emas National Park
  23. Fernando de Noronha Marine National Park
  24. Furna Feia National Park
  25. Grande Sertão Veredas National Park
  26. Guaricana National Park
  27. Iguaçu National Park
  28. Ilha Grande National Park
  29. Ilhas dos Currais Marine National Park
  30. Itatiaia National Park
  31. Jamanxim National Park
  32. Jaú National Park
  33. Jericoacoara National Park
  34. Jurubatiba Sandbank National Park
  35. Juruena National Park
  36. Lagoa do Peixe National Park
  37. Lençóis Maranhenses National Park
  38. Mapinguari National Park
  39. Monte Pascoal National Park
  40. Monte Roraima National Park
  41. Nascentes National Park to Lago Jari
  42. Nascentes do Rio Parnaíba National Park
  43. Pacaás Novos National Park
  44. Pantanal Matogrossense National Park
  45. Pau Brasil National Park
  46. Pico da Neblina National Park
  47. Rio Novo National Park
  48. Saint-Hilaire/Lange National Park
  49. São Joaquim National Park
  50. Semper Vivas National Park
  51. Serra da Bocaina National Park
  52. Serra da Bodoquena National Park
  53. Serra da Canastra National Park
  54. Serra da Capivara National Park
  55. Serra da Cutia National Park
  56. Serra da Mocidade National Park
  57. Serra das Confusões National Park
  58. Serra das Lontras National Park
  59. Serra de Itabaiana National Park
  60. Serra do Cipó National Park
  61. Serra do Divisor National Park
  62. Serra do Gandarela National Park
  63. Serra do Itajaí National Park
  64. Serra do Pardo National Park
  65. Serra dos Órgãos National Park
  66. Serra Geral National Park
  67. Sete Cidades National Park
  68. Superagui National Park
  69. Tijuca National Park
  70. Tumucumaque Mountains National Park
  71. Ubajara National Park
  72. Viruá National Park