Date of establishment: May 26, 1966

Brief history:

  • 16th century: Guyana was first discovered by European explorers who arrived as part of their exploration of the New World. The area was originally home to many Native American tribes.
  • 17th to 18th century: During this time, Guyana was discovered by the Dutch and later became an important part of the slave trade, mainly on sugar cane and coffee plantations.
  • 1814: Britain and the Netherlands signed a treaty that gave Britain control of Guyana.
  • 1834: British Guiana became a British colony and remained so until the 20th century.
  • 1948: The People’s Progressive Party (PPP) political movement was founded in Guyana and played a key role in the struggle for independence.
  • 1966: Guyana gained autonomy within the British Commonwealth.
  • 1966: Following a referendum, Guyana was declared an independent republic with a presidential system of government. Forbes Burnham became the country’s first president.
  • 1980: Guyana became a cooperative socialist republic.
  • 1985: After the death of President Burnham, Desmond Hoyte became president.
  • 1992: Guyana held its first free elections in a long time


International abbreviation: GUY


Currency: Guyanese dollar (GYD)

The Guyanese dollar unit is divided into 100 cents. Guyana is the only country in South America to have an English-named currency, reflecting its historical association with Britain.


Internet domain: .gy


Dialing code: +592


Time zone: -4 GMT



Guyana has a relatively short but very low coastline on the Atlantic Ocean. This coast is often called the “Gold Coast” and is famous for its beaches and mangroves.

Most of Guyana’s population lives in the coastal lowlands, which stretch along the coast and are very fertile. The interior is mountainous and consists mainly of the Guyana Highlands.

Guyana has an extensive river network, including the Essequibo River, which is the longest and largest in the country.

The Amazon Rainforest extends to the east of Guyana and covers most of the interior.

Guyana sits on the rift edge of South America and has several active and inactive volcanoes. One of the most famous is Roraima, which is located in the Guyana highlands.

In the south, there are savannahs where open grasslands and low vegetation predominate.


Highest peak: Mount Roraima 2 810 m (9 219 feet) above sea level.

Roraima is both the name of a volcano and a mesa located in the Guyana Highlands and is part of a massive flat mesa ridge.



Guyana has a year-round warm climate. Average daily temperatures range between 24°C (75°F) and 30°C (86°F). Temperature differences between individual seasons are not significant.

Guyana has high humidity throughout the year. Due to its location near the equator, the country has two main rainy seasons: May to August and November to January.

Between the rainy season there is a short dry season from September to October.

Guyana is located on the northern coast of South America, which means it can be exposed to Atlantic hurricanes, especially during the hurricane season, which runs from June to November

The coastal area of Guyana can be affected by trade winds that blow from east to west and bring air from the Atlantic Ocean.


Fauna and Flora:

Guyana has extensive protected areas and national parks that serve as refuges for many species of wildlife. These include, for example, the Kanuku Mountains Protected Area and the Iwokrama Rainforest Reserve.

Guyana is a paradise for birdwatchers. The country is home to more than 800 species of birds, including cockatoos, parrots, birds of prey and waterfowl.

There are a variety of mammals such as jaguars, pumas, monkeys, peccaries, tapirs and anteaters.

Many of Guyana’s rivers and waterways are rich in fish, including the arapaima, which is one of the largest freshwater fish in the world, and the piranha.

Extensive rainforests cover much of the interior. Guyana’s coastal areas are rich in mangroves, which play an important role in the coastal ecosystem.

The country is home to unique tree species, including the Moru, a tree with a prominent root system that rises above the ground.

Plants in Guyana are also important in traditional medicine. Local people use many types of plants to treat various ailments.



Guyana is one of the largest rice producers in the Caribbean and South America.

Historically, sugarcane was one of Guyana’s main crops. The country has several sugar factories that process sugar cane into sugar and other products.

Guyana also produces coffee, especially in the highlands and rainforest. Bananas, pineapples, citrus and other tropical fruits are also important crops.

Cattle breeding is an important part of agriculture. Guyana produces beef, pork and poultry.

The country has an extensive fishing industrial base that includes both freshwater and marine fishing.

In addition to crops for the internal market, Guyana also produces tropical crops and spices that are exported, such as turmeric, pepper and vanilla spices.


Extraction of raw materials:

Guyana is one of the world’s largest producers of bauxite, which is the main raw material for aluminum production. Bauxite mining takes place in the Essequibo region, where there are rich deposits.

Gold mining is another major industry in Guyana. Gold is mined both in small independent mines and in commercial ones operated by international mining companies.

Guyana has extensive forest reserves that include hardwood and softwood. In recent years, large reserves of oil and natural gas have been discovered in submarine deposits off the coast of the country. Guyana also mines diamonds, although this is not as developed as gold mining.


Industry: food, mining, shipbuilding, and construction

The mining of bauxite, the main raw material for aluminum production, is one of Guyana’s largest industries. The processing of bauxite into aluminum is carried out in local smelters.

The discovery of large reserves of oil and natural gas off the coast of Guyana led to the rapid development of the mining industry in the area.

Guyana has a food industry that includes food processing, including fish canning and the manufacture of food products.


Services and other areas of the economy: maritime transport, services, and shipping


Natural and historical attractions: Georgetown and Bartica, Marshall Falls (Kaieteur), Rupununi region, and the Kanuku Range

Guyana is known as the “Green Heart of South America” and is home to vast rainforests, rivers, savannas and swamps. Visitors can go trekking, bird watching, on safari and take boat trips to discover the wild fauna and flora.

The country has beautiful coastlines and river systems that offer opportunities for beach relaxation, diving, fishing and water sports.

It has a rich cultural history and is home to many ethnic groups, including Native American, African, European and Asian communities.

Guyana offers adventure experiences such as climbing the Roraima volcano, canoeing through rivers and swamps, and exploring caves and waterfalls.


Waterparks in Guyana:


Form of government: semi-presidential republic

Guyana has a presidential system of government, meaning the president is the head of state and government. The president is elected for a five-year term by universal suffrage.

The government of Guyana is composed of three basic components – the president, the cabinet and parliament. The government is responsible for running the country and implementing policy. The president appoints ministers and forms the executive branch.

Guyana’s parliament is bicameral and consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The House of Representatives has 65 members who are elected by proportional representation. The Senate has 33 members, some of whom are appointed by the president and some elected by regional authorities.

Guyana has an independent judicial system that includes a High Court, Court of Appeal and lower courts. The judiciary is separate from the executive and legislative branches and is tasked with ensuring justice.


Capital city: Georgetown

It is located on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, at the northern tip of Guyana, near the mouth of the Demerara River.

Georgetown was founded in 1781 by British Governor George Templetown and was named after King George III. Guyana was a British colony at the time.


Area: 214 970 km2 (83 000 square miles)


Population: 800 000 (2022)

Guyana is known for its ethnic diversity. The largest ethnic group is the Indo-Guyanese, who represent the majority of the population and are descendants of Indian immigrants

The official language of Guyana is English. However, Creole languages, Hindi, Urdu, and Taki-taki are also used publicly.

Guyana’s religions in are Christianity, Hinduism, Islam and other religious traditions. The country has a diverse religious life with various churches, mosques and Hindu and Jewish communities.

Guyanese culture is influenced by various ethnic groups and is a diverse mix of traditions, music, dance, and culinary skills.


UNESCO World Heritage Sites: –


National parks: 3


  1. Kaieteur National Park
  2. Canaima National Park
  3. Guyana Amazon Park