Date of establishment: 28 July 1821

Brief history:

  • 5th century: The Incas, under the ruler Pachacút Inca Yupanqui, began to expand and unify the various regions into a vast empire.
  • 1532: Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro arrived in Peru and conquered the Inca Empire, laying the foundations for Spanish colonization.
  • 19th century: Efforts for independence from Spanish rule began to emerge. On July 28, 1821, the independence of Peru was proclaimed.
  • 19th and 20th centuries: Peru went through a period of political change and conflict. Various republics and civil wars were declared, including a war with Chile over the territory of Tacna and Arica.
  • 1980–2000: Violence and insurgency erupted in Peru from the communist organization Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) and the Tupac Amaru armed movement.
  • 21st century: Peru experienced a period of political stability and economic growth. The country has become a major producer of copper and precious metals.


International abbreviation: PE


Currency: Peruvian Sol (PEN)

The Peruvian sol is available in the form of notes and coins of various denominations. It is named after the original Peruvian currency that was used in Inca times.


Internet domain: .pe


Dialing code: +51


Time zone: -5 GMT



Peru is famous for its part of the Andes, which is one of the highest mountain ranges in the world. It includes several mountain ranges, including the Cordillera Blanca, the Cordillera Huayhuash, and the Cordillera Vilcabamba.

To the east of Peru lies the Amazon region, which includes dense rainforests, rivers and biodiverse areas. Peru has a stake in the Amazon basin, making it one of the key countries in the area.

The coast, located in the west of the country, is drier and has a desert-like character. Peru shares with Bolivia Lake Titicaca, the highest navigable lake in the world.

Southern Peru is home to the Sechura Desert and the Nazca Desert. The Nazca Desert is famous for geoglyphs, huge drawings in the sand that are mysterious archaeological artifacts.


Highest peak: Nevado Huascarán 6 768 m (22 205 feet) above sea level.

Huascarán is located in the Cordillera Blanca in the Andes, in the northern part of the country.

Huascarán itself has two parts to its summit, Huascarán Sur (southern) and Huascarán Norte (northern).



The coastal region of Peru, located on the west coast of the country, has a typical desert and arid climate. This area is characterized by low rainfall and dry and sunny weather for most of the year. Temperatures here can be very high, especially during the summer season.

The central part, containing the Andes Mountains, has diverse climatic conditions depending on the altitude. The lower parts of the Andes have an alpine climate with mild temperatures and a rainy season during the summer.

The eastern part of Peru belongs to the Amazon rainforest. The area has a tropical and rainy climate with high temperatures and high rainfall throughout the year.


Fauna and flora:

Peru is home to these two species of South American camels. Llamas are raised in the Andes and are used for wool and meat. Alpacas are also bred for wool and are smaller.

The Andean condor is a large bird with a large wingspan that lives in the Andes. It is the national symbol of Peru and many tourists want to see it while flying in the mountains.

The jaguar, the largest feline in the Americas, is found in the Amazon rainforest. It is the second largest predatory animal in the world after the tiger.

The capybara is the largest rodent in the world and lives in the Amazonian wetlands and rivers. The Queuña is a type of tree that is found in the Andes and is adapted to a cold and windy climate.

Coca is a plant that grows in the Andes and has cultural significance for the local people. Its leaves are traditionally used to make cocaine, but also to prepare a traditional drink known as “mate de coca.” Peru is home to many species of orchids, making it one of the richest places for this flower in the world. Cordyceps flowers are large plants found in the higher altitudes of the Andes. Many species of trees grow in the Amazon rainforest, including rubber trees that produce latex, which is used to make rubber.



Peru is one of the largest producers of flowers in the world. Especially in the area around the city of Arequipa, many types of flowers are grown, including roses, lilies, and others. These are exported to different parts of the world.

The country is famous for its coffee, which is grown in different regions of the country. Coffee from Peru is often considered high quality and is gaining popularity with the growing interest in specialty coffee. Quinoa, a protein-rich superfood, originates from the Andes. Peru is one of the main producers of quinoa and its exports are growing due to interest in a healthy diet.

Potatoes were cultivated in the Andes for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans and are still an important part of Peruvian cuisine.

Peru grows crops such as cotton and wool, which are crucial for the textiles industry.

Livestock farming, including llamas and alpacas, is common in the Andean countryside. These animals are used for wool, meat and other products.

Peru produces many fruits and vegetables, including avocados, citrus fruits, mangoes, papayas, tomatoes, and others. Production is exported abroad.

Peru is one of the world’s major producers of fish and seafood, including tuna, sardines and anchovies.


Extraction of raw materials:

Peru is one of the world’s major copper producers. Mining areas are located in regions such as Arequipa, Moquegua and Ancash. The country is also a major producer of zinc and lead.

Peru has rich gold and silver reserves that are mined in various parts of the country, including the regions of Cajamarca, La Libertad and Ancash.

Tin is mined in the regions of Puno and Pasco. The country is one of the world’s main producers of tin, which is mainly used in the production of electronics.

Peru has rich reserves of gemstones, including opals, emeralds, amethysts and more. Regions like Arequipa and Ayacucho are known for gem mining.



As already mentioned, the mining of raw materials, including copper, zinc, lead, gold, silver and tin, is one of the main industries.

Peru’s food industry includes food processing, beverage production, and fish and seafood processing.

The textiles industry is an important sector and includes the production of clothing, textile products and woolen products. Peruvian alpacas and sheep’s wool are known for their quality.

Construction is an important industry as the country is rapidly developing and urbanizing.

The chemicals industry includes the production of chemicals, pharmaceuticals and fertilizers. The Peruvian pharmaceuticals industry is one of the largest in Latin America.

The automotive industry includes the production and assembly of automobiles and vehicles. Peru also produces some types of electric vehicles.


Services and other areas of the economy: maritime transport, tourism, and telecommunications


Natural and tourist attractions: the cities of Lima, Cusco, Pisac, Machu Picchu, Lake Titicaca, Rainbow Mountain, Huascarán National Park, and Huacachina Oasis.

Machu Picchu is Peru’s most famous historical monument and one of the most iconic places in the world. Located atop the Andes, this ancient Inca fortress is considered a marvel of engineering and architecture. The city of Cusco is the former capital of the Incas and is full of historical monuments, including temples, forts and colonial architecture.

Peru has a vast territory in the Amazon rainforest, which attracts adventurers, ornithologists and naturalists.

Lake Titicaca is the highest navigable lake in the world and home to traditional Peruvian communities who live on floating islands.

The Nazca geoglyphs are huge drawings in the sand that are only visible from a height. These mysterious shapes and lines attract archaeologists and explorers.

Peru is rich in traditional festivals and celebrations such as Inti Raymi (solstice festival) and Carnaval.

Peruvian cuisine is one of the most distinctive in the world. Visitors can enjoy traditional dishes such as ceviche, lomo saltado and pisco sour.


Waterparks in Peru:


Form of government: presidential republic

The main element of the Peruvian government is the presidential system. The country’s president is both head of state and government, and is elected in direct elections for a five-year term.

Legislative power is vested in the National Congress, which consists of one house with 130 deputies. Members of parliament are elected for five-year terms and have powers to make and pass laws and control the government.

The Peruvian judicial system is independent and includes the Supreme Court, regional level courts and various specialized courts. The judiciary is tasked with applying the law and ensuring justice.

Peru’s foreign policy is focused on maintaining good relations with other states and active participation in international organizations. The country is a member of organizations such as the Organization of American States (OAS), the United Nations (UN) and the Latin American Cooperation Council (CELAC).


Capital city: Lima

It lies on the coast of the Pacific Ocean at the western end of the country.

Lima was founded by the Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on January 18, 1535, under the name “Ciudad de los Reyes” (City of Kings).


Area: 1 285 220 km2 (496 226 square miles)


Population: 32 700 000 (2022)

Mestizos are the ethnic group that makes up the majority of the Peruvian population and are descendants of intermarriage between Europeans and native Indians.

Peru has a rich history of native Indian tribes, including the Quechua and Aymara. These are mainly concentrated in the rural areas of the Andes.

Descendants of African slaves who were brought to Peru during the colonial era make up a small but significant proportion of the population.

A smaller portion are descendants of European immigrants, especially Spaniards who came during colonization.


UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 13


  1. Cuzco (1983) – The historic city of Cuzco, former capital of the Incas.
  2. Chavín de Huántar (1985) – An archaeological site with monumental temples and artistic artifacts.
  3. Huascarán National Park (1985) – A protected area in the Andes with high mountains and rich biodiversity.
  4. Chan Chan Archaeological Site (1986) – A large adobe city, former capital of the Han.
  5. Manu National Park (1987) – A protected area in the rainforest with diverse fauna and flora.
  6. The Historic Center of Lima (1988, 1991) – The old town of Lima with historic buildings and the architecture.
  7. Río Abiseo National Park (1990, 1992) – A protected area with unique ecosystems and archaeological sites.
  8. Geoglyphs on the Nazca Plain and Pampas de Jumana (1994) – Large earth drawings in the desert, known as the Nazca Lines.
  9. Arequipa (2000) – The historic city of Arequipa with colonial architecture.
  10. The Sacred City of Caral-Supe (2009) – An ancient archaeological site with the remains of one of the oldest civilizations in the Americas.
  11. Qhapaq Ñan, the Andean Road System (2014) – A historic road network in the Andes that served for Inca communication.
  12. Chankillo Archaeo-Astronomical Complex (2021) – An archaeological complex with astronomical functions, including a solar calendar.
  13. Machu Picchu (1983) – A famous archaeological site and Inca citadel.


National parks: 15


  1. Cutervo National Park
  2. Tingo Maria National Park
  3. Manu National Park
  4. Huascarán National Park
  5. Cerros de Amotape National Park
  6. Abiseo River National Park
  7. Yanachaga–Chemillén National Park
  8. Bahuaja-Sonene National Park
  9. Cordillera Azul National Park
  10. Otishi National Park
  11. Alto Purús National Park
  12. Ichigkat muja National Park – Cordillera del Condor
  13. Güeppí Sekime National Park
  14. Sierra del Divisor National Park
  15. Yaguas National Park